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his officers and men, held the most friendly re- against the savages on the open prairie by fiftylations with the surrounding Indians. In the four soldiers, a dozen civilians, and a few wospring of 1812 a coolness was observed on the men. Of the latter Mrs. Heald and Mrs. Helm part of the savages, and early in April a scalp-|(a step-daughter of Mr. Kinzie) were the most ing party of Winnebagoes, from the Rock River, conspicuous. They were both mounted. Mrs. committed murders in the neighborhood of Chi- Heald was an excellent rider, and expert in the cago. The alarmed inhabitants took refuge in use of the rifle. This she used effectively. She the fort. At length the Indians disappeared, received some wounds. Faint and bleeding, she and for several weeks the dwellers at Chicago managed to keep the saddle. A savage raised experienced no further disturbance.
his tomahawk to kill her, when she looked him Early in August a message reached Captain full in the face, and in his own language, said, Heald from General Hull, by the hand of a with a sweet, melancholy smile, “Surely you friendly Indian, ordering him to evacuate Fort will not kill a squaw!” The appeal was effectuDearborn if practicable, and distribute the pub- al. Her life was spared. Mrs. Helm had a lic property there among the surrounding In- severe personal encounter with a powerful young dians, as a peace-offering. The courier, a friend warrior, who attempted to tomahawk her. By of the white people, who knew the Indians well, a quick movement she seized him around the advised against evacuation. Tecumtha had in- neck and endeavored to get hold of his scalping formed them of the fall of Mackinack, the with- knife, which hung in a sheath on his breast, drawal of Hull from Canada, and the probable when she was dragged from him by another Insuccess of the British at Detroit, and assured dian, who, in spite of her desperate resistance, them that Heald was in their power, and they bore her to the lake and plunged her in, at the must not let him escape. Heald's officers also same time, to her astonishment, holding her so advised against evacuation. They had plenty that she would not drown. It was a friendly of ammunition and food, and might endure a hand that held her. It was that of the Black protracted siege. But Heald determined to leave Partridge who gave Heald the warning. She the post and distribute the property. Had he too was saved. But Captain Wells and twodone so immediately, before the Indians could thirds of the white people were slain or wound. gather a force to oppose him, all might have ed. When the captives were taken back to the been well. But he delayed, and they prepared. Indian camp near the fort a new scene of horrors At length, on the 13th of August, the distribu- was opened. Proctor had offe a liberal sum tion was made, and the garrison, with the wo- for scalps delivered at Malden; so nearly all the men and children, prepared to march out the wounded were deliberately killed, and the value following morning, to make their way to Fort of British bounty—such as is sometimes offered Wayne, under an escort of Pottawatomies, who in new countries for the destruction of wolves, pretended to be friendly. That evening Black was taken from each head. On the following Partridge, a really friendly chief, said to Cap- morning the fort was burned, and Chicago betain Heald, mysteriously, but plainly in warn- came a desolation, while the prisoners were ing, “Leaden birds have been singing in my taken eastward. A new fort was erected there ears to-day; be careful on the march you are in 1816. One of its block-houses remained in going to take." But Heald heeded not the Chicago, at the river termination of Wabashi warning. That night be destroyed the powder, Avenue, until 1856, when it was demolished. muskets, and whisky, in the fort, which the In- The city of Chicago now covers the entire theatre dians expected to have, the discovery of which, of events just alluded to. the next morning, greatly exasperated them. When the post at Chicago was annihilated by
The morning of the 14th dawned brightly, this one terrible blow, Black Bird, the leader of but the dwellers in the fort were impressed with the fierce Pottawatomies, who accomplished it, a presentiment of impending destruction. They pressed on toward Fort Wayne, to attempt the were preparing to leave when Captain Wells, capture of that important military station, while Mrs. Heald's uncle, was seen approaching with Tecumtha, with the zeal of a patriot and ena band of Miamies. He had pushed forward thusiast, sent emissaries to all the tribes to infrom Fort Wayne as rapidly as possible with re- cite them to go out upon the war-path, and exinforcements for the post, well knowing that terminate the white people north of the Ohio. certain destruction would follow evacuation. He and Proctor resolved to capture Forts Wayne He was too late. All means for maintaining a and Harrison immediately, as the first important siege had been distributed or destroyed. The step toward the accomplishment of the longday was passed in gloomy preparations; and on cherished design of the British authorities and the morning of the 15th, at nine o'clock, they the great Indian warrior. To divert attention all left the fort in solemn procession, the band from these posts and prevent their garrisons beplaying the Dead March in Saul, for they had ing reinforced, the savages were directed to prosepositive information that the Indians intended cute warfare at distant points in their usual to massacre the white people. They had not mode, namely, murdering isolated settlers, with gone far along the margin of the lake when the their women and children. escort of Pottawatomies turned upon them. A Early in September Fort Wayne was invested short but desperate fight ensued. The coward by about six hundred Indians, and at the same ly Miamies fled, and the battle was sustained time Major Muir, of the British army, was mov.
ing in that direction with regulars, Canadian son would be exposed to massacre by the Inmilitia, and Indians from Malden. The garri. dians. He also assured Captain Rhea that a son of Fort Wayne, under Captain Rhea, num- reinforcement of seven hundred Indians was bered only seventy men, and the entire amount wear. The Americans were not alarmed by the of heavy ordnance there consisted of four small “Quaker guns” nor the fabled reinforcements. field-pieces. The savages attacked the fort on A courier had brought intelligence that friends the night of the 6th with great vehemence. They were on the way to relieve the garrison. The attempted to scale the palisades, but so vigilant assailants seem to have received similar intelliand skillful were the garrison that the Indians gence, and on the 12th they fled precipitately were not permitted to do the least damage. In from before the fort. On the same evening the the morning the assailants tried strategy. Two deliverers arrived and Fort Wayne was saved. logs, made to imitate cannon, were placed "in While these demonstrations against Fort battery," and a half-breed, with a flag, was sent Wayne were in progress similar attempts were to the fort to inform the commander that the made to capture the new Fort Harrison, on the British had sent them two siege guns, and that Wabash, then in command of Captain Zachary if the post was not surrendered immediately the Taylor, who was just recovering from a severe stockade would be battered down and the garri. I attack of bilious fever. The garrison consisted
of only about fifty men, of whom, on account of ed event. As early as May, Governor Scott had thé epidemic sickness, not more than a dozen organized ten regiments of volunteers, niaking were fit for duty. Only six privates and two a force of five thousand men. Governor Meigs, non-commissioned officers were able to mount of Ohio, had been equally active, and the everguard at a time. Warning of danger had vigilant Harrison, with his accustomed forecast reached the post, and added strength to the con- and energy, had caused several block-houses valescents. Preparations for an attack were and stockades to be erected within his Territory made, and toward midnight of the 4th of Sep- of Indiana. His popularity was unbounded. tember Captain Taylor was aroused from his “The hero of Tippecanoe" was a standing toast slumbers by the firing of his sentinels. Every among the Kentuckians; and when, at the reman was ordered to his post. It was soon dis- quest of Governor Scott, he visited Frankfort covered that one of the block-houses had been to join in a conference on military affairs, he set on fire by the assailants, who were chiefly was honored with a public reception and the Winnebagoes, Shawnoese, Pottawatomies, Kick- cordial greetings of the principal men of the apoos, and some Miamies, who still adhered to State. His views of affairs in the Northwest the fortunes of The Prophet, then seated at his were so comprehensive that Henry Clay and old village near the Tippecanoe. That block- others desired him to lay them before the Govhouse was extremely important, for it contained ernment. He did so in a letter on the 10th of most of the provisions for the garrison. For a August, in which he predicted the downfall of time there seemed little hope of safety. The Detroit if General Hull should not be reinblock-house was consumed, and the fort was forced. Before that letter reached Washington opened to the host of savages without, whose Detroit and Chicago had both fallen. exultant yells for a moment almost paralyzed At this critical moment the veteran Isaac the little garrison. All seemed lost. The flames Shelby, the hero of King's Mountain, suddenly were touching the barracks when the command-appeared upon the scene as the successor-elect er, whose courage and resources were always of Governor Scott. He had felt the public equal to any emergency, shouted, “Pull off the pulse with a master's touch. He knew that roofs nearest the block-house; pour on water, Kentuckians were eager to be led northward and all will be well!" His voice was like in- for the reconquest of Michigan and the expulspiration, and several of the men, led by Dr. sion of the enemy, and that the volunteers were Clark, the surgeon, climbed to the roof, cast off anxious to be commanded by Harrison. Gorthe boards, and by great exertions, in the face ernor Scott responded to their wishes by apof a terrible fire of bullets and arrows from pointing him Major-General of the Kentucky the savages, subdued the flames and saved the Militia. By a commission dated three days menaced buildings. In all this heroic action earlier President Madison had appointed him only one man was killed and two wounded. Be a Brigadier in the army of the United States. fore daylight the breach had been covered by a Harrison immediately entered upon his duties high traverse of earth ; and at eight o'clock in under the authority of the Governor of Kenthe morning, after a conflict of eight hours, the tucky, hastened to Cincinnati, sent troops norihdisheartened savages retired beyond the reach ward from there on the 29th of August, and on of the guns of the fort. The wearied garrison the 31st overtook them forty miles on their way were thus allowed some repose. Toward noon toward Dayton, and was received with great the Indians, after having destroyed some of the demonstrations of respect. On the following live-stock belonging to the fort, fled up the Wa- day, at Dayton, he received his commission bash, taking a number of horses, cattle, and from the President of the United States, with hogs with them. Fortunately for the garrison instructions to take command of all the forces the standing Indian corn around the fort was in the Territories of Indiana and Illinois, and left untouched, and on this they subsisted sever- to co-operate with General Hull and Governor al days, until relief came to them from Vin- Howard of Missouri. cennes,
Harrison was perplexed by his instructions We have observed that troops arrived at Fort from the War Department. Hull's army was Wayne and saved it from destruction. Whence annihilated, and General Winchester, of the came they? Let us see.
regulars, was in chief command of the army The sad disasters in the Northwest caused the of the Northwest destined to co-operate with most intense feelings of indignation, horror, the unfortunate invader of Canada. He wrote and mortified pride throughout the whole coun- to the Government for new instructions under try, and especially westward of the Alleghany the circumstances, but pushed forward in the Mountains. The frontier was exposed to raids, path of duty to Piqua, expecting to meet Genif not formidable invasions of the British and eral Winchester there, and to resign the comtheir savage allies; and the instinct of self-mand of his troops into that officer's hands. preservation as well as the sentiment of pride Two thousand soldiers were with him, and as called for immediate and effective action. An many more were following. On his arrival at intense desire was created to drive the motley Piqua he was informed of the perilous situation enemy from the soil of the Republic.
of Fort Wayne. He sent a trusty Indian to Even before the declaration of war Kentucky promise relief to the garrison. General Win. had made military preparations for the expect-chester had not arrived. Delay might be dan
WILLIAM U. HARRIBON.
regular troops and Rangers in that quarter, will consist of the volunteers and militia of Kentucky, Ohio, and three thousand from Virginia and Pennsylvania, making your whole force ten thousand men." He was promised artillery from Pittsburg, and was invested with extraordinary pow
“Exercise your own discretion," said the Secretary, "and act in all cases according to your own judgment.” This appointment gave great satisfaction to the army, and the soldiery expressed their willingness to go wherever Har. rison might lead them. Winchester acquiesced in the change, and with two thousand men left Fort Wayne on the morning of the 22d of September for the Rapids of the Maumee, fifty miles distant, to co-operate with the division under Harrison in intended operations against Detroit and Malden. He advanced cautiously, had some bloody skirmishes with Indians in the vai of a larger force of White and Red men under Major Muir and Colonel Elliott, a notorious Indian agent, and at the close of the month reached the confluence of the Au Glaise and Maumee rivers, where Wayne built a fort in
1794, and called it Defiance, near where the gerous; so he sent a detachment toward Fort village of Defiance now stands. Muir and ElWayne, with instructions to make forced march- liott, taking counsel of prudence and their fears,
The whole army with Harrison speedily had fled at his approach, and were then at the followed, and on the march were joined by a Maumee Rapids, a point of great strategic imcorps of mounted Kentuckians under Colonel portance, the possession of which would be esRichard M. Johnson. They were also joined sential to the Americans in successfully prosby some Ohio troops pressing in the same direc-ecuting their designs against Detroit and Maltion. On the morning of the 12th, being near den. Fort Wayne, they formed in battle order, and While Winchester was making his way tothus marched cautiously. But no foe was to ward Fort Defiance Harrison was pushing on be seen. The savages had fled, as we have be- through the wilderness from St. Marys, in the fore observed, and Fort Wayne, on that warm, present Mercer County, Ohio, toward the Maubright September day, was the scene of great mee Rapids. The difficulties in the way of rejoicing These were the deliverers. The transportation of supplies over that swampy requestion, Whence came they? is answered. gion, with inadequate means, were enormous.
From Fort Wayne Harrison sent out detach- The base of operations, having the Rapids as ments to smite the Indian villages in various the first object to be possessed, was a line drawn directions, and spread terror through their country. These were successful : and a forward movement down the Maumee was about to be commenced, when General Winchester arrived at Fort Wayne, assumed command, to the great dissatisfaction of the soldiers, and Harrison returned to Piqua, where he intended to collect the mounted men from Kentucky and prepare for an expedition against Detroit. There he received a dispatch from the Secretary of War, saying: “The President is pleased to assign to you the command of the Northwestern army, which, in addition to the
SITE OF TORT DEFIANCE.
along the margin of the swampy region from vance on the Rapids; and he soon afterward esSt. Marys to Upper Sandusky, the former to tablished his head-quarters at Franklinton, on be the principal deposit for provisions, and the the Scioto River, opposite the site of the present latter for artillery and military stores. The city of Columbus, then covered by the primeval army was to march in three divisions, the right forest. It was an eligible point for the concencolumn to be composed of the Virginia and tration and forward movement of troops and Pennsylvania troops, to rendezvous at Wooster, supplies. Owing to unavoidable delays, caused the capital of the present Wayne County, Ohio, partly by the tardiness with which supplies reachand proceed from thence by Upper Sandusky to ed him, and partly because of the wretched conthe Rapids. The centre column, to consist of dition of the roads, made so by the autumn rains, twelve hundred Ohio militia, was to march from he spent several weeks in laborious preparations Urbana to Fort M'Arthur, and follow Hull's for an advance, resolved, if he could do no betroad to the Rapids. The left column, to be ter, to undertake the perilous enterprise of a composed of the regulars under Colonel Samuel winter campaign. He knew that much was ex. Wells, and four regiments of Kentucky volun- pected of him, and day and night his head and teers, were to proceed down the Au Glaise to hands were at work. Taking all things into the Maumee from St. Marys, and join Win- consideration, his task was Herculean, and to chester, and from thence press onward to the some men would have been appalling. He was Rapids.
compelled to create an army out of good but exThe plan was well arranged, but supplies lin. ceedingly crude materials. He was compelled gered. Winchester's troops, composing the left to reconcile many differences and difficulties in wing of the army, were made a corps of observ- order to insure the harmony arising from perfect ation, and Fort Defiance was designed as an im- discipline. He was compelled to concentrate portant deposit for provisions, preparatory to the forces and supplies at convenient places, while grand advance on the Rapids. That movement perplexed with the greatest impediments. His was to commence as soon as the artillery should operations were necessarily three-fold in characarrive at Upper Sandusky, and other supplies ter; namely, preparative, offensive, and defenshad accumulated along the base of operations. ive, in a wilderness filled with hostile savages,
While Harrison was engaged in these prep- controlled and supported by British regulars. arations, he heard, almost simultaneously, by A frontier hundreds of miles in extent must be expresses, of the departure of Muir and Elli. protected at all hazards from the hatchet and the ott from Malden with British regulars, Cana- knife. The season was becoming more and more dian militia, two thousand Indians, and two inclement. From the fortieth degree of latitude pieces of artillery for Fort Wayne by way of northward (the direction of his projected march) the Maumee, and of the meeting of the dusky was a region of dark forests and black swamps. vanguard of the foe by Winchester between The autumnal rains had commenced, filling evFort Wayne and Fort Defiance. These reports ery stream brimful, and making every morass produced great commotion in the camp. The overflow with water. Through these roads must troops were immediately provisioned and or be cut and causeways constructed for the pasdered to march rapidly toward Defiance. Three sage of troops, pack-horses, provisions, and arhours after the order was issued Harrison was in tillery. Block-houses were to be built, magathe saddle, and his whole corps were following zines of provisions established, and a vigilant him into the wilderness in a drenching rain. watch kept upon the savages prowling on his That night officers and men slept in the cold Aanks. All this had to be done with undiscidamp air, without tents, and nothing between plined troops prone to self-government and indethem and the water pools on the surface of the pendence, with a great uncertainty whether volunground but brush from the beech-trees.' There teers would swell his army to the promised numHarrison was informed by Winchester of the ber of ten thousand men. Yet, in view of all flight of the enemy down the Maumee. The these difficulties, Harrison was hopeful, and workmarch was stayed. Some of the troops were or-ed on with faith. Governor Meigs, and Generdered back. Others moved forward to make a als Wadsworth and Perkins, and others of Ohio, road to Defiance; and the mounted men, a thou- gave him all the assistance in their power ; and sand strong, rode forward in five lines, mak- Brigadier-General Tupper, with a corps of mounting an imposing appearance in the stately for-ed men of the same State, performed valuable est, where the leaves were just assuming the services in pioneer movements toward the Rapids. gorgeous autumnal tints. Harrison visited Win. In November Tupper made a bold attempt to chester's camp, and found the troops in almost capture the British post at the Rapids. He had open mutiny. By cheering words he soon re- quite a severe contest there, but was compelled stored order and comparative good feeling. They to retreat on account of a lack of provisions. were willing to endure much now that they were His sudden appearance alarmed the enemy; and informed that the beloved Harrison was the com- while Tapper was hastening back toward Fort manding General of the whole army.
M'Arthur the enemy were flying down the MauAfter ordering the construction of a new fort mee, and abandoning the Rapids to the next (which was named Fort Winchester) near old comer. At about the same time expeditions Fort Defiance, Harrison returned to St. Marys were moving against the Indians elsewhere. to complete his preparations for a general ad- One of them, sent out by Harrison, under Col.