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lowing threefold classification of the truths of every science: 1. “The truths which it teaches relative to the constitution and action of matter or of mind; 2. The truths which it teaches relative to theology; and, 3. The application of both classes of truths to practical uses, physical or moral.” This division he has illustrated by an example.
But, he supposes, it may be objected to on the ground that it omits one of the objects of scientific investigation-namely, the explanation of phenomena. In order to meet this objection, our author denies that there is any real difference between the discovery of general truths and the explanation of phenomena by them; or, in other words, that there is any difference between analysis and synthesis in the sciences of contingent truth. Both processes, he contends, are made up of the same steps, and there is no difference between them, except that these steps are taken in an inverse order. To make this point good against the commonly received distinction, Lord Brougham lays great stress upon the circumstance, that the facts employed in any analysis, and leading to the establishment of a general truth, might themselves have been explained by that general truth, provided it had first been established in some other way. But we confess we cannot see that the two processes in question should be regarded as one and the same, merely because the same phenomena may be indiscriminately made the subject matter of either of them.
We shall not follow the author in his remarks respecting the pernicious influence which he imagines the above distinction is calculated to exert over our inquiries after truth. If the distinction has a real foundation in the nature of things, this is sufficient. We agree, however, with Lord Brougham, that the terms synthesis and analysis have been improperly applied to the sciences of contingent truth, and that they have given rise to no little confusion; but this is no reason why we should annihilate the distinction which they are intended to preserve. We should rather retain this distinction by the use of the more appropriate terms-induction and deduction; and not suppose, with his Lordship, that the former constitutes the sole method to be followed in our investigations.
The truth is, that although Lord Brougham has written so much about induction, he seldom speaks of it without betray. ing some inaccuracy of thought or of expression. For example, "Induction gives us a right to expect that the same result will always happen from the same action operating in the like circumstances.” Who does not see that this proposition should be regarded as a self-evident truth, as the spontaneous result of our mental constitution, and not as founded upon induction ? Again: “The fundamental rule of inductive science is, that no hypothesis shall be admitted that nothing shall be assumed merely because, if true, it would explain the facts.” If this is correct, it is evident that Newton has violated the fundamental rule of inductive science, in supposing that the power of gravity varies inversely as the squares of the distances; for the only ground for believing this is, that it serves to explain the facts observed.
We should now come, in order, to the second part of the Discourse before us, which contains but few pages, and treats of the three following subjects—the pleasures which attend all scientific pursuits, the pleasures and the improvement peculiar to the study of Natural Theology, and the service rendered by this study to the doctrines of Revelation.
But we have already drawn out our remarks to a great length, and we shall only observe, with respect to this part of the Discourse, that it contains some very important and interesting observations. On the last subject of which it treats, the connexion between natural and revealed religion, we had intended to extend our remarks to a considerable length; but, for the reason just stated, we shall desist.
If the reader imagines that we have taken great pains to point out the defects of the ex-chancellor's Discourse, we beg leave to inform him that we have only given a few specimens of his style of reasoning; and that we have, indeed, left some of his most pregnant passages untouched. We do not pretend, however, that the author has not displayed uncommon powers of one sort; but they are not such, in our opinion, as qualify him for the task he has undertaken. He is capable of producing a very great effect by combinations of thought, and, in this way, he has given us some specimens of fine writing; but he wants the power of discrimination. We hardly know which is the more remarkable,—the extent and variety of his knowledge, or the want of logical precision which pervades his Discourse. We take leave of the book, by again reminding our readers that our main ground of quarrel with the work is found in its pretension of being a statement of the "nature of the evidence" for the truths of Natural Theology. A good cause suffers a great deal more from the bad arguments of its friends than from the objections of its enemies. There are, too, scattered through the treatise, several false statements, psychological and logical ; some of the most important of which we have exposed, because, occurring incidentally in a work like this, they are likely to do harm by being thonght
lessly or carelessly adopted by persons who would seldom be in danger from the systematic works to which those topics more strictly belong.
Art. IV.-Dyspepsy Forestalled and Resisted : or Lectures
on Diet, Regimen, and Employment : Delivered to the Students of Amherst College ; Spring Term, 1830. By Edward Hitchcock, Professor of Chemistry and Natural History in that Institution. Amherst. Published by J. S.
& C. Adams & Co. Means without Living. Boston: Weeks, Jordan & Co. 1837.
The world is peopled by two classes of beings, which seem to be as cognate and necessary to each other as male and female. Charlatans and dupes exist by a mutual dependence. There is a tacit understanding, that whatever the one invents the other must believe. All bills which the former draws, the latter comes forward at once and honours. One is Prospero, the other his poor slave Caliban. The charlatan tricks himself out in a mask, assumes a deep, hollow voice, and struts upon the stage; while the dupe sits gaping in the pit, and takes every word that drops from the rogue's mouth for gospel-truth and genuine philosophy. It would really seem as if the two parties had entered into a solemn compact, that wherever the one exhibited as charlatan, the other, by an absolute necessity, agrees to be present as simpleton. Let the rogue open shop to dispense pills, the simpleton, as soon as he learns the fact, hies to the place of trade, and, pouring down his pence on the counter, takes his box of specifics, and walks complacently away. The knaves seem to consider the world as a rich parislı-a large diocese of dunces, into which they have an hereditary and prescriptive right to be installed. They are never at rest until they have some subject on which to hold forth in public; some novel doctrine running against the grain of the old good sense; some antiquated sophism dressed in a new suit, to be put forth to surprise and startle the community, and gather around it (as a gay adventurer) an army of disciples. These men constantly assume an attitude of battle. They wage war upon every thing past, present, and to
" Rather than fail, they will decry That which they love inost tenderly;
Quarrel with minc'd pies, and disparage
And blaspheme custard through the nose.” Here, in the lines just quoted, is an exact portrait of a modern lecturer on Dietetics, sketched by the hand of an Old Master. General ignorance with a smattering of medical knowledge ; some fluency in speaking, or readiness with the pen; great tact in discovering the disposition, and skill in the management of a certain class of persons; an air of casy, cool impudence in public; an oracular and self-possessed manner in private; are parts of that beautiful mosaic—an apostle of dietetics. Of such materials are framed those little men who attempt upon the earth to rival Deity: who assume his thunder and trident; his power to shake the heart with fear; to regulate the human system; and to denounce penal fires, and all imaginable and unimaginable tortures, on the head of rebellion. These are the cunning plotters who work upon weak minds through their fancies and doubts. “They give a life and body to their fears.” Such men, broken down in health and dyspeptic, whose whole lives have been a scene of miserable and false feelings, engendered by a morbid condition of body, assume to become prophets and dispensers of health. These ruined and ruinous horologes would give the time o'day to the healthy world.
In every age there has existed some favourite theory for the regeneration of the race; some grand discovery (about to be made), which was to be universal, ubiquitous in its influence and success.
At one time the philosopher's stone; in the next age a short
passage to the East Indies; and now, in a third and less romantic period, all the great objects of amelioration and amendment are to be accomplished by the substitution of unbolted flour in the place of pure wheat and solid animal food. The authors of these miraculous discoveries believe that the human race is to be regenerated solely through the medium of the palate ; that the channels of access to the human head and human heart are not, as of old, through the understanding and the affections, but through the alimentary ducts. Instead of winding along the shore of the Mediterranean and over the shoals of the Indian Ocean, they strike boldly across the Atlantic, and find the country for which they are in search. They take for granted that man has no imagination, no heart, no nerves, no soul, nor arteries; but that he is a creat ture all stomach ; that one mighty abdomen is the badge and property of human kind; and that in it centres the machinery, from it spring the movements, which build up and overturn states and empires—the strong fancy which moulds itself in epics and histories—the gentle pathos which melts us from the pulpit or in the elegy-the fierce wrath and "energy divine” which shake the stage; all hold their court in this vast, subterranean cavern, and from it rush forth upon the world.
The first great canon of this code of living, is that the flesh of beasts be banished from the table. Unholy pig, nor stupid veal, nor silly mutton, corpulent roast beef, nor presumptuous sirloin, must appear before these chaste, dietetic vestals. Calf, sheep, ox, fowl, partridge--they know then not in animated Nature. They have revised the edible Universe, and from it stricken those blots and monsters. Tender-souled philanthropists! They would know why these should not run rampant, and fly on the earth and in the air harmless ? They are joint-denizens here. Fellow-citizens of ours, are these good friends.
These natural feeders have a touch that makes them kin" with us.
Let them grow and multiply. Let them fatten in our meadows, and spread their pinions in our woods. Like us, they are for an equitable division of property; they, too, are humble Agrarians; their desires are moderate. Till your fields until the sweat pearls upon your forehead: you need not chaffer with customers. They will take the crop of grain off your hands. Gay creatures, they will frisk and eat for you: they have made us their stewards; if we plough and plant, they will, most willingly, gather the increase.
“The hog that ploughs not, nor obeys thy call,
"See man for mine !'' replies a pamper'd goose."
“ Man partakes," says one of the learned doctors of this school, “ of the nature of the animal which he eats !” Here