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To detail, then, to strangers, the numberless objects that may be observed, would be both unnecessary and unavailing. Yet, it may detain many a lingerer to know that, where the twin towers of Tanfield rise by the gleaming stream, the last home of the great Marmions is canopied by the one; and that the chivalry of the north have approached the halls of Fitzhugh through the other. That in the gabled pile to the right, “Old Norton" mused on the treason that has immortalised his name ; and that at Topcliffe,receding further from the view, the regal hearted Percys enjoyed a retirement from the world, until the avenging hand of Elizabeth entailed misery and ruin on the representative of their race. That, still beyond, towers Craike, the embattled patrimony of the sainted Cuthbert; and, turning quickly aside, that Northallerton, forgetful of the stately palace of the bishops of Durham, and looking upon the plain of the Battle of the Standard, nestles at the left of the mountain ridge ; and that, glancing over the Priory of Mountgrace, and Harlsey the stronghold of the Strangwayes, and Whorlton of the Meinells and the Darcies, and Stokesley of the Baliols and the Eures, Rosebury rears its volcanic peak among the clouds ; while, still beyond, the high lands of Eston die into a line of gleaming light, that may, reasonably, be deemed to be the ocean.
Few having looked on so much beauty, would now desire further entertainment. The path favours our return, and by a circuitous route, that agreeably mitigates our transition, we presently regain the lanes and fields.
Hæc resoluta senum confirmat membra trementum,
HOBRES, DE MIRABILIBUS Pecci. ARROGATE, like most watering places of renown, had but an humble and obscure origin. In the earliest periods to which our written history extends, it lay an undistinguished and probably untenanted spot in the forest of Knaresbrough ; and it was not
until the emparkment of a portion of that great sylvan range at Haywra, that,-from the road which led thither from the fortress on the Nidd,—it became known as Haywragate.
As the time of the emparkment of Haywra is uncertain, so must be the designation of the road that led thither. In a charter granted by Richard Earl of Cornwall, about 1257, to the house of St. Robert at Knaresbrough, there is mention of the road which turns from that town towards “Heywra,” and the application of sainted appellations to some of the springs at Harrogate, indicates that they, if not their unusual efficacy, were observed during the mediæval period. Yet the huts that were scattered by the way-side might not, even in this century, have lost much of their humble character, if the occurrence of an accidental circumstance had not suddenly changed their fortune.
It was this : Captain William Slingsby, a younger brother of the family that for several centuries has resided at Scriven, about three miles from this place, visited, during the latter half of the sixteenth century, the waters of Sauveniere, in Germany, and received benefit. On his return, he observed, as too many have done, that he had left a remedy of equal efficacy at home,—was wise enough to avail himself of the benefit --gratefully built a protection over the spring,
—and spread the glad tidings of its utility among the marvelling population around.
While a series of cures were in performance, some of which, says Dr. Short,“ are perhaps the greatest and most remarkable filed up in the authentic records of physic, down from Hippocrates to this day,” Dr. Stanhope, an ingenious physician, of York, discovered in 1631, at High Harrogate, another Chalybeate spring, to which, in distinction to the Sulphur Waters, he gave the name of the “Sweet Spa.” In the year after, when he wrote his dissertation of the Mineral Waters near Knaresbrough—for, by that general designation, be it remembered, these springs at Harrogate were then, and long after, comprehended—the Sulphur waters were rising in reputation, though they were chiefly frequented by the common people ; and our author confessed “what are its inward uses we know not yet.” It was fortunate, however, that in this absence of information, the merits of the sulphuretted springs forced themselves on attention ; for a controversy soon after arose, touching the relative merits of the Scarborough and Harrogate Chalybeate Waters ; and, with the fate that has attended many once fashionable watering places, our Spa might have become unfrequented and unregarded, had not the Sulphur Water maintained its popularity.
With the social progress of the eighteenth century, Harrogate rose and prospered. Its accommodations increased with the domestic economy and civilisation of the times, and the number of visitants with that accumulation of wealth, which commercial skill and enterprise had dealt to the hands of so many—until, at the present day, by the centralisation of many species of medicinal waters—the superiority of the most important class—the beauty of the surrounding country—and the diversity of amusements, Harrogate has become, and by its many undeveloped attractions and the permanent character of its excellencies, bids fair to remain, one of the most interesting, eligible, and beneficial watering places in the Empire.
High and Low Harrogate form, as far as parochial matters and other greater local interests are concerned, two distinct villages, whose line of division, two brooks, is not obvious to the eye.
The former is in the parish of Knaresbrough, the other in that of Pannal; but, until the formation of the Bishopric of Ripon, a more singular distinction prevailed ; for the former was in the jurisdiction of the See of Chester—the latter that of York.
The Parishioners of High Harrogate attended divine service, by an inconvenient journey of three miles, until the year 1749, when, by the subscription of the interested parties, and a donation of 501. from Lady Elizabeth Hastings, a chapel was erected. In 1831 it needed so much extension that its removal was deemed preferable, and the materials were alienated for the formation of “ The Independent Chapel,” near Prospect-place. The structure which succeeded it was built in the same year, and affords an accommodation of 1200 sittings, of which 800, designated by labels, are “ free.” Under the provisions of the Act, 58 Geo. III., c. 45, a district parish has, very properly, been assigned to this church.
Low Harrogate, which is three miles from its parish church, first obtained the benefit of a separate place of worship in 1824, when St. Mary's Church was erected, after much exertion, aided by the Commissioners of the Million Act.
The inhabitants and visitors attached to the Romish faith, perform their devotions in the spacious chapel lately erected at Knaresbrough.
The Dissenters have exhibited their wonted alacrity, in providing spiritual instruction for the strangers of their several persuasions. The new Wesleyan Chapel-for the old one, that had arisen so early as 1797, was abandoned to the purposes of " The Lounge” will be found in Central Harrogate, and of capacity sufficient to accommodate 800 souls. The Independents erected a commodious structure in 1831, by the footpath leading to High Harrogate; and the Quakers meet, during the Spa season, in the British School Room, in Central Harrogate.
And now of the Waters themselves. In a publication like the present, intended for general circulation, it is of course unavailing to dissertate on the component parts and application of waters, of which it is sufficient for the majority that they drink "in faith, nothing doubting.” The Chemist has had, already, the advantage of several careful and judicious observations and analyses ; and to those who are driven hither more by necessity than pleasure, I would recommend, in the words of Dr. French, that they apply themselves to some experienced Physician, who shall be able to understand their constitution, distemper, and the nature and use of the waters themselves ; that accordingly, as cause shall require, the more successful preparations may be administered, and the more effectual directions given.
THE TEWIT WELL
on the Common, to the east side of the Brunswick Hotel and near the Leeds and Harrogate road, has not only precedency of its companions, but of all similar waters in the county. Its history, which has been much garbled, is best conveyed in the original words of Dr. Dean's Spadacrene Anglica, published in 1626. “It was discovered first,” says he, “about fifty years ago, by one Mr. William Slingsby, who had travelled in Germany in his younger years, seen and been acquainted with theirs ; and as he was of an ancient family near the place, so he had fine parts, and was a capable judge. He lived sometime at a Grange house near it; then removed to Bilton Park, where he spent the rest of his days. He, using this water yearly, found it exactly like the German spaw. He made several tryals of it, then walled it about and paved it in the bottom with two large stone flags, with a hole in their sides for the free access of the water, which springs up only at the bottom through a chink or cranny left on purpose. Its current is always nearly the same, and is about the quantity of the Sauvenir, to which Mr. Slingsby thought it preferable, being more brisk and lively, fuller of mineral spirits, of speedier operation : he found much benefit by it. Dr. Tim. Bright, about thirty years ago (1596), first gave it the name of The English Spaw.' Having spent some time at those in Germany, he was a judge of both, and had so good an opinion of ours that he sent many patients hither yearly, and every summer drank the waters upon the place himself. And Dr. Anthony Hunter, late Physician of Newark-upon-Trent, often chided us Physicians in York for not writing upon it, and deservedly setting it upon the wings of fame.”
Though it has of late been indulged with the old cast-off dome from the Sulphur well, the memorable “ English Spaw” still remains, after all the benefits it has conferred and all the praise it has received, in something like its pristine humility, and deserted, until lately, for those that have better advocates and a more commodious position. For a trifling gratuity to the inmates of an adjacent cottage, the visitor may still enjoy the undiminished benefit that it offers, and test, in his own person, the truth of Dr. French's recommendation: that it occasions the retention of nothing that should be evacuated, and, by relaxation, evacuates