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sight of the need they have of Christ, and of the perfection of his obedience a.
Q. 96. What particular use is there of the moral law to unregenerate men?
A. The moral law is of use to unregenerate men, to awaken their consciences to flee from wrath to come, and to drive them to Christ; or, upon their continuance in the estate and way of sin, to leave them inexcusable a, and under the curse thereof.
Q. 97. What special use is there of the moral law to the regenerate?
A. Although they that are regenerate and believe in Christ be delivered from the moral law as a f covenant of works, so as thereby they are neither justified nor con
Ver. 23. For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God
Gal. i 21. Is the law then against the promises of God? God for bid for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law. Ver. 22. But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.
a Rom. x. 4. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth.
96. b 1 Tim. i. 9. Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers, and murderers of mothers, for man-slayers, Ver. 10. For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind. for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine.
c Gal. ii 24. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.
d Rom. i. 20. For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that
they are without excuse. Compared with Rom. ii. 15. Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another.
e Gal. iii 10. For as many as are of the works of the law are under the eurse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them
97. f Rom vi. 14. For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace. Rom vii 4. Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are become dead to the law by the body of Christ; that ye should be married to another, even to him who is raised from the dead, tha twe should bring forth fruit unto God. Ver. 6. But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter. Gal. iv. 4. But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, Ver. 5. To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.
g Rom iii. 20. Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight; for by the law is the knowledge of sin.
demned, yet, besides the general uses thereof, common to them with all men, it is of special use, to shew them how much they are bound to Christ for his fulfilling it, and enduring the curse thereof in their stead, and for their good i; and thereby to provoke them to more thankfulness k, and to express the same, in their greater care to conform themselves thereunto as the rule of their obedience1.
Q. 98. Where is the moral law summarily comprehended? A. The moral law is summarily comprehended in the ten commandments, which were delivered by the voice of God upon mount Sinai, and written by him in two tables of stonem; and are recorded in the twentieth chapter of
b Gal. v. 23. Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law. Rom. viii. 1. There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.
i Rom. vii. 24. O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death? Ver. 25. I thank God, through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I my self serve the law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin. Gal. iii. 13. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us for it is wristen, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: Ver. 14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Rom. viii. 3. For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin condemned sin in the flesh: Ver. 4 That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. k Luke i. 68. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people, Ver. 69 And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David. Ver. 74. That he would grant unto us, that we, being delivered out of the hands of our enemies, might serve him without fear, Ver. 75. In holi
ness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life. Col. i. 12. Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light: Ver. 13. Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath trans. lated us into the kingdom of his dear Son: Ver. 14. In whom we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins.
/ Rom. vii. 22. For I delight in the law of God after the inward man. Rom. xii. 2. And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God. Tit. ii. 11. For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, Ver. 12. Teaching us, that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world; Ver. 13. Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; Ver. 14. Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.
98. m Deut. x. 4. And he wrote on the tables, according to the first writing, the ten commandments, which the Lord spake unto you in the mount, out of the midst of the fire, in the day of the assembly; and the Lord gave them unto me. Exod.
Exodus. The four first commandments containing our duty to God, and the other six our duty to man ".
Q. 99. What rules are to be observed for the right understanding of the ten commandments?
A. For the right understanding of the ten commandments, these rules are be observed:
1. That the law is perfect, and bindeth every one to full conformity in the whole man unto the righteousness thereof, and unto entire obedience for ever; so as to require the utmost perfection of every duty, and to forbid the least degree of every sin°.
2. That it is spiritual, and so reacheth the understanding,
xxxiv. 1. And the Lord said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stone, like unto the first: and I will write upon these tables the words that were in the first tables, which thou brakest. Ver. 2. And be ready in the morning, and come up in the morning unto mount Sinai, and present thyself there to me in the top of the mount. Ver. 3. And no man shall come up with thee, &c. Ver. 4. And he hewed two tables of stone, like unto the first; and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto mount Sinai, as the Lord had commanded him, and took in his hand the two tables of
n Mat. xxii. 37. Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. Ver. 58. This is the first and great commandment. Ver. 39. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Ver. 40. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.
99. o Psal. xix. 7. The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul; the testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple. James ii. 10. For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. Mat. v. 21. [to the end.] Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in dan
ger of the judgment: Ver. 22. But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell-fire.-Ver. 27. Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: Ver. 28. But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.-Ver. 33. Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths: Ver. 34. But I say unto you, Swear not at all: neither by heaven; for it is God's throne:-Ver. 37. But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil. Ver. 38. Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: Ver. 39. But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil.-Ver. 43. Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy: Ver. 44. But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you, Yc.
will, affections, and all other powers of the soul; as well as words, works, and gestures P.
3. That one and the same thing, in divers respects, is required or forbidden in several commandments ¶.
4 That as, where a duty is commanded, the contrary sin is forbidden; and, where a sin is forbidden, the contrary duty is commanded': so, where a promise is annexed, the contrary threatening is included; and, where a threatening is annexed, the contrary promise is included ".
p Rom. vii. 14. For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin. Deut. vi. 5. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might. Compared with Matt. xxii. 37. Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. Ver. 38. This is the first and great commandment. Ver. 39. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
q Col. iii. 5. Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth: fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry. Amos viii. 5. Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit? Prov, i. 19. So are the ways of every one that is greedy of gain: which taketh away the life of the owners thereof. 1 Tim. vi. 10. For the love of money is the root of all evil; which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows.
r Isa. Iviii. 13. If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day, and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable, and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words. Deut. vi. 13. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and serve him, and shalt swear by his
name. Compared with Mat. iv. 9. And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. Ver. 10. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan : for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. Mat. xv. 4 For God commanded, saying, Honour thy father and mother: and, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death. Ver. 5. But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; Ver. 6. And honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition.
s Mat. v. 21, 22. [See letter o.] Ver. 23. Therefore, if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee; Ver. 24. Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. Eph. iv. 28. Let him that stole, steal no more; but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.
t Exod xx. 12. Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee. Compared with Prov. xxx. 17. The eye that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey. his mother, the ravens of the valley shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it.
u. Jer. xviii. 7. At what instant I shall speak concerning a nation, and
5. That what God forbids is at no time to be done w ; what he commands is always our duty; and yet every particular duty is not to be done at all times.
6. That under one sin or duty, all of the same kind are forbidden or commanded; together with all the causes, means, occasions, and appearances thereof, and provocations thereunto z.
7. That what is forbidden or commanded to ourselves, we are bound, according to our places, to endeavour that it
concerning a kingdom, to pluck up, and to pull down, and to destroy it: Ver. 8. If that nation, against whom I have pronounced, turn from their evil, I will repent of the evil that I thought to do unto them. Exod. xx. 7. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. Compared with Psal. xv. 1. Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle? who shall dwell in thy holy hill? Ver. 4. In whose eyes a vile person is contemned; but he honoureth them that fear the Lord: he that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not. Ver. 5. He that putteth not out his money to usury, nor taketh reward against the innocent. He that doeth these things shall never be moved. And with Psal. xxiv. 4. He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart: who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn de ceitfully. Ver. 5. He shall receive the blessing from the Lord, and righteousness from the God of his salvation.
Job xiii. 7. Will ye speak wickedly for God? and talk deceitfully for him? Ver. 8. Will ye accept his person? will ye contend for God? Rom. iii 8. And not rather, (as we be slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say,) Let us do evil, that good may come whose damnation is just. Job xxxvi, 21. Take heed, regard not iniquity; for this hast thou chosen rather than affliction. Heb. xi. 25. Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season.
* Deut. iv. 8. And what nation is
there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous, as all this law, which I set before you this day? Ver. 9. Only take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently, lest thou forget the things which thine eyes have seen, and lest they depart from thy heart all the days of thy life: but teach them thy sons, and thy sons' sons.
y Mat. xii. 7. But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless.
z Mat. v. 21, 22, 27, 28. [See in letter o before.] Mat. xv. 4. For God commanded, saying, Honour thy father and mother; and, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death. Ver. 5. But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; Ver. 6. And honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition Heb. x. 24. And let us consider one another, to provoke unto love and to good works; Ver. 25. Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another; and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching. 1 Thess. v. 22. Abstain from all appearance of evil. Jude, Ver. 23. And others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire; hating even the garment spotted by the flesh. Gal v. 26. Let us not be desirous of vain-glory, provoking one another, envying one another. Col. iii. 21. Fathers, provoke not your children to anger, lest they be discouraged.