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of Mme. de Rambouillet. This tribute of Boileau overcame his somewhat hostile attitude toward the poet.

171. Brioché was a famous exhibitor of marionettes on the Pont Neuf, which was not far from the Théâtre Guénégaud, where Pradon's Phèdre was played. Pradon (1632-1698) was a tragic poet not unpopular in his time but now completely eclipsed by his greater contemporaries.

173. De doctrina christiana, IV, xxviii, 28, 61.

174. Book VII of Plato's Republic. Plato compares men to persons chained against one wall and able to see in a mirror on the opposite wall only the reflection of men walking in the street above.

175. The Coliseum in Rome.

176. Athenian orator, IV Century B. C.

177. Roman patrician and conspirator against the senate, denounced by Cicero, I Century B. C.

178. Roman pro-consul,_attacked by Cicero for depredations in the cities of Sicily, I Century B. C.

179. Marc Antony, denounced by Cicero who was in the party of Octavius, first century B. C.

180. Philip of Macedonia, denounced by Demosthenes, IV Century B. C.

181. "Preconceived opinion."

182. "Opinion."

183. "Worthy of approval."

184. "Intelligence."

185. Opposed to "esprit," here in the sense of "heart."

186. Philosophe, philosophie, that is, the physical sciences.

187. Action by which an actor ascends or descends as though flying. 188. Son of Helios (Apollo) to whom was given permission to conduct the chariot of the Sun.

189. In the duchy of Brunswick. The university was suppressed in 1809.

190. Equivalent to écrivit.

191. Ibben, another Persian.

192. "October."

193. A jew; a mussulman; a christian.

1932. August.

194. Monks.

195. Cf. p. 89, note 128.

196. January.

197. Helen of Troy.

198. Prince de Condé.

199. Daughter of Jupiter and Themis and the goddess of Justice. She forsook the earth because of the crimes of humanity.

200. Father of Jupiter. Driven from heaven, he took refuge in Latium (Italy), where he presided at the Golden Age.

201. i. e., Cybèle, wife of Saturn, goddess of the Earth and mother of the gods.

202. "Elegance."

203. Island of Holland at the entrance of the Zuyder Zee, here meaning Holland.

204. Ganges, river of India, here a symbol for India.

205. The Koran forbade the drinking of wine.

206. Author of Cuisinier français.

207. Augustus (63 B. C.-14 A. D.), roman emperor, grand-nephew of Julius Cæsar.

208. At the end of a play, the principal actor addressed the public beginning with the word: Plaudite (applaud). Suetonius relates (Augustus, chap. XC) that on the day of his death, Augustus said to his friends: "Eh bien! trouvez-vous que j'aie assez bien joué cette farce de la vie?" Et il ajouta en grec: "Si vous êtes contents, battez donc les mains, et applaudissez."

209. On November 1, 1755, Lisbon suffered from an earthquake in which between 30,000 and 40,000 persons lost their lives.

210. The doctrine of original sin.

211. Leibnitz (1646-1716), German philosopher. His optimism is summed up in the words: "tout est pour le mieux dans le meilleur des mondes possibles," satirized by Voltaire in Candide (1759).

212. Cf. Pascal, Pensées, no. 347.

213. Voltaire resided at Mme. du Chatelet's house at Cirey from 1734 until her death in 1749.

214. Latin of the Church.

215. English philosopher of XVII Century.

216. Moral sufferings.

217. Voltaire is addressing d'Holbach, an atheist.

218. To punish Prometheus, who stole the fire of heaven, Zeus sent him Pandora with a mysterious box which, when opened, spread all possible ills over the earth, there remaining at the bottom of the box, hope.

219. "Uncaused and imperishable elementary forms, essential forms which are both mental and physical" in the philosophy of Leibnitz.

220. Nero, Roman emperor from 54 to 68 A. D., an infamous tyrant. Alexandre VI, Borgia pope from 1492 to 1503, a prince of the Renaissance rather than a pope. Louis-Dominique Bourguignon (Cartouche), chief of a celebrated band of thieves, executed on the place de Grève in 1721.

221. Antonin le Pieux, Roman emperor of II Century.

222. Stoic philosopher of the I Century.

223. Allusion to the famous wager of Pascal.

224. Sacred stone which the Archangel Gabriel brought from Heaven and which was placed in the centre of the mosque at Mecca. 225. A thousand billions.

226. Dutch philosopher of XVII Century, a pantheist. The idea here

is taken from Bayle, that is, that morality (conduct) and religion are entirely separate and independent one of the other.

227. i. e., who leads a sedentary and secluded life.

228. Cesar Borgia, late XV Century, son of Alexander VI, an infamous character.

229. The uprising of the Anabaptists in Munster (1532-1535). They took possession of the city and attempted to establish a theocracy.

230. The peasantry of the Cévennes who, from 1702 to 1705, resisted by force attempts to enforce the revocation of the edict of Nantes (1685).

231. The most famous of the Centaurs, celebrated for his wisdom and knowledge of the art of healing, teacher of many of the most distinguished heroes of Greece.

232. Pope Julius II (from 1503 to 1513), who excommunicated Louis XII.

233. The "premiers commis” were in charge of various departments immediately under the ministers and had considerable authority. Voltaire had returned from England in 1729 and was still impressed with what he had seen there.

234. The "Regiment de la Calotte" was a society to which belonged all those who had become famous for some extravagance or other in words or actions. Their brevet was a cap (calotte). At first, members were elected with or without their consent, but finally it came to be the style and was regarded humorously by those who belonged. It lasted until the middle of the century.

235. Triptolemus, son of Celeus, king of Eleusis. Ceres, goddess of agriculture, instructed Triptolemus in her art in gratitude for the hospitality received from his father.

236. Refers to the raising of water with a pump which was first in use in England.

237. Apparent deviation of light rays coming from the stars.

238. The first stone theatre erected in Rome, the remains of which still stand.

239. Voltaire's niece, "Sa nièce est à mourir de rire. C'est une petite grosse femme toute ronde, d'environ cinquante ans, femme comme on ne l'est point, menteuse sans le vouloir et sans méchanceté; n'ayant pas d'esprit et en paraissant avoir, criant, politiquant, versifiant, raisonnant, déraisonnant, et tout cela sans trop de prétention, et surtout sans choquer personne. Elle adore son oncle, en tant qu'oncle et en tant qu'homme; Voltaire la chérit, s'en moque et la révère. En un mot, cette maison est le refuge et l'assemblage des contraires, et un spectacle charmant pour les spectateurs." (Mme. d'Epinay.)

240. Opera of Quinault and Lulli, presented in 1683.

241. Member of the Berlin Opera.

242. Rome sauvée, one of Voltaire's tragedies.

243. Père Thoulier, abbé d'Olivet (1682-1768), grammarian and translator, member of the Academy, and largely responsible for the third edition of the Dictionary of the Academy (1740).

244. Discours sur l'Origine de l'Inégalité parmi les Hommes, 1755.

245. Tronchin (1709-1781), famous doctor of Geneva.

246. Hostilities between the French and English colonies had already begun.

247. Aux Delices, near Geneva.

248. Cf. Rousseau: Si le rétablissement des sciences et des arts a contribué à épurer les mœurs (1750).

249. Diderot and d'Alembert. Rousseau had not yet quarreled with Diderot.

250. Abbé Desfontaines (1685-1745), an enemy of Voltaire.

251. La Beaumelle (1726-1773), first editor of the letters of Mme. de Maintenon.

252. Voltaire suspected Frederick of this.

253. Jean Néaulme of La Haye.

254. Chapelin (1595-1674), one of the first members of the Academy, editor of the Sentiments sur le Cid and La Pucelle (1656). It is to this latter work that reference is here made.

255. Voltaire was historiographer from 1745 to 1750. His Histoire de la Guerre de 1741 was stolen by the Marquis de Ximénès and printed in Paris in 1755.

256. Prieur.

257. The most celebrated Portuguese poet, XVI Century.

258. Cicero (106-43 B. C.), most celebrated of Roman orators; Varro (116-27 B. C.), Roman poet and savant; Lucretius (95-51 B. C.), Latin poet; Marius_(156-86 B. C.), Roman general and rival of Sulla; Sulla (136-58 B. C.), Roman general and dictator, wrote memoirs. Antony and Lepidus were, with Octavius, the second triumvirate (43 B. C.).

259. Marot (1495-1544), court poet of François Ier, master in light, graceful poetry and translator of portions of Virgil, Ovid and Petrarch and some of the Psalms. Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Eve: Aug. 23, 1572.

260. La Fronde, uprising of the nobles against Mazarin, 1648-1653. 261. Thamasp Kouli-kan, from a camel driver and brigand, became king of Persia (1688-1747).

262. Malebranche (1638-1715), French philosopher, disciple of Descartes and author of Recherche de la Vérité (1674).

263. Calas, Jean, merchant of Toulouse, whose son was found hanged. The father was accused of having murdered him to prevent his becoming a catholic and was judicially murdered in 1762. Voltaire succeeded in having him rehabilitated, legally. For similar instances of Voltaire's hatred of persecution and intolerance and his unselfishness, see cases of Sirven, Chevalier de la Barre, etc.

264. Comte d'Argental (1700-1788), nephew of Mme. de Tencin, counsellor of parliament of Paris, Voltaire's most intimate friend and confidant. He called d'Argental and his wife "mes anges gardiens."

265. Former first president of the parliament of Dijon, died in 1768. 266. Etienne François, duc de Choiseul (1719-1785), minister of foreign affairs, peer of France and at this time (1762) at the height

of his power. His subsequent fall was caused in part at least by his hostility to the Jesuits.

267. Mme. du Deffand (1697-1780), friend and confidant of Voltaire and famous for her salon, her affair with d'Alembert and, at the age of seventy, her love affair with Horace Walpole. "Je ne sais pas de correspondence au XVIII siècle qui ait un intérêt psychologique plus sérieux que ces lettres (the letters of Mme. du Deffand).” (Lanson.)

268. Ferney, in France (Ain), very near the Swiss border. Voltaire lived here from 1760 till his return to Paris at the time of his death (1778).

269. François Joachim de Bernis (1715-1794), prelate and poet, author of light verse and memoirs. His "avenir" was to become

cardinal and ambassador to Venice and Rome.

270. Freron (1719-1776), French journalist and critic, bitter enemy of Voltaire.

271. Jacques le Franc, marquis de Pompignan (1709-1784), author of a tragedy of Dido and of "poésies sacrées," of which Voltaire said: ''Sacrées,' ils sont car personne n'y touche."

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272. i. e., quarrels between natives and strangers (Lanson). The Dictionnaire Générale gives bibus: un rien.

273. Perses: Parisians; Persépolis: Paris.

274. Region between the Tigris and Euphrates.

275. Gold coin of ancient Persia with head of Darius on it; worth about five dollars.

276. i. e., through the Faubourg Saint-Marceau.

277. Hôtel des Invalides, begun by Louis XIV.

278. "Conseiller au parlement," this office could be sold by the incumbent or handed down to members of his family.

279. Abbot or superior of an order.

280. Jansenist (Moland).

281. Zoroaster, one of the great teachers of the East and founder of the wisdom of the Magi.

282. The pope.

283. Jansenists.

284. Cardinal de Fleury (1657-1743), minister of Louis XV.

285. Probably Mme. de Pompadour (1721-1764), mistress of Louis XV.

286. Jean François Rameau (born 1716), nephew of the musician Jean Philippe Rameau (1683-1764). Diderot's portrait while artistically exaggerated seems to tally fairly well with the few existing descriptions of this ne'er-do-well.

287. In the Allée d'Argenson to the east of the Jardin du Palais Royal.

288. "Fancies."

289. This café, founded in 1718, still exists and is still a rendezvous of chess players.

290. Proprietor of the café.

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