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Prescott's Peru; Grote's Utilitarian Philosophy.
2. Jones's Right of Suffrage; Landor; Carlyle's Hero Worship; Brachet's Historical French Grammar; Dryden; DeQuincey's Essays; Channing's Lectures; Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter and Blithedale Romance; Bacon's Works; Mill's Utilitarianism; Grote's Utilitarian Philosophy; Milton's Works; Bacon's Manual of Gesture; Bulfinch's Age of Fable; Pictorial History of England; Foster's Cromwell; Blackie's Hora Hellenicæ; Gervinus's Shakspere; Boswell's Johnson; Hazlitt's English Poets; Shakespeare; Donaldson's Antigone; Scott's Old Mortality; Wordsworth's Greek Testament; Life of Eliot.
3. Freeman's Old English History; Bulwer's Last of the Barons; Müller's Lectures on Religion; Moon's The Dean's English; Wordsworth's Greece; Leeds's Architecture; Ganot's Physics; Nichol's Architecture of the Heavens; Blaserna's Theory of Sound; Tyndall on Sound; Roscoe's Spectrum Analysis; Stewart's Conservation of Energy; Middleton's Life of Cicero; Plutarch's Lives; Masson's Three Devils; Hullah's Cultivation of the Speaking Voice; Stewart's Elementary Treatise on Heat; Spenser's Poetical Works; Percy's Reliques; Taylor's Whole Works; Songs of England and Scotland; Emerson's Essays; Browne's Works; Scott's Waverley; Walker's Science of Wealth; Nicholson's Zoology; Schmidt's Descent and Darwinism; Mill's Logic; Jowett's Plato; Fénelon's Preacher and Pastor; Whately's Logic; Hunt's Poetry of Science; Ruskin's Sesame and Lilies; Plato's Apology; Hazlitt's Shakespeare's Plays; Angus's Bible Handbook; Tennyson's Idylls of the King; Hawthorne's House of the Seven Gables; Abbott's Shakesperian Grammar; Descartes's Method; Boston Lectures, 1870; Whitney's Growth of Language; Cooke's Religion and Chemistry; Bain's Mind and Body; Paley's Works; Hutton's Scott; Shairp's Burns; Morison's Gibbon; Hooker's Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity; Milton's Areopagitica; Addison on Paradise Lost.
4. Seelye's Philosophy; Locke's Essays; Wayland's Intellectual Philosophy; Maudsley's Physiology of Mind; Mill's Logic; Moral Freedom and Causation; Mansell's Metaphysics; Carpenter's Mental Physiology; Cousin's History of Philosophy; Outline Study of Man; Combe's Constitution of Man; Oersted's Soul in Nature; Bain's Mental and Moral Science; Hume's Philosophical Works; Maurice's Claims of Science and of the Bible; Study of History; Machiavelli's Works; Webster's Works; Noel's Union of Church and State; Sellar's Poets of the Augustan Age; Lange's Materialism; Modern Pantheism; Tacitus; Whewell's Elements of Morality; Martineau's Essays; Hunt's Poetry of Sci
ence; Nepos's Lives; Duncan's Cæsar; Bray's Philosophy of Necessity; Edwards on The Will; Fleming's Moral Philosophy; Schlegel's Dramatic Literature; Donaldson's Theatre of the Greeks.
The reading of a high grade student who had early chosen his profession. He won a reputation in college for rapidity in mastering the contents of a book, an ability that still marks him among men.
CHARLES EVANS HUGHES, 1881
Lawyer, counsel to the Armstrong Insurance Committee of the New York Legislature, Governor of New York, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, candidate for the presidency, Secretary of State. He entered Brown as a sophomore at the age of sixteen.
2. Thackeray's Pendennis, Vanity Fair, Newcomes, Virginians, Henry Esmond, and Miscellanies; Dickens's Dombey and Son, Little Dorrit, Tale of Two Cities, Barnaby Rudge, and Martin Chuzzlewit; Irving's Sketchbook and Alhambra; Champlin's Demosthenes; Macaulay's Essays; Ben Jonson's Works; Howitt's English and Foreign Life; Gray's Poems; Hugo's Ninetythree; Elder's Questions of the Day; Merchant's Magazine; Bulwer's Rienzi; Scott's Pirate; DeQuincey's Opium Eater; Edinburgh Review; Lamb's Works; DeMille's Helena's Household; Spectator; Emerson's Essays; Bulwer's Harold, and Last of the Barons; Palgrave's Normandy and England; Thierry's Norman Conquest; North American Review, six volumes; Scott's Woodstock; Carlyle's Hero Worship; Smith's Three English Statesmen; Foster's Statesmen of the Commonwealth; Old Plays.
3. Dickens's Nicholas Nickleby, Bleak House, and Our Mutual Friend; Galaxy; Spectator; Morley's Shelley, also his Spenser; Land We Live In; Richmond and its Vicinity; Pope's Works; Fraser's Magazine; Blackwood's Magazine; Edinburgh Review; London Quarterly Review; Bremer's Works; Sterne's Works; Beaumont and Fletcher; Goldsmith's Works; Horace; Lamb's Works; Lowell's Among My Books; British Theatre; Addison's Works; Cox's Why We Laugh; Thackeray's Miscellanies; Country Parson; Femmede Feu; Morley's Thackeray; Student's Hume; Lives of Englishmen; Sand's Indiana; Cousin's History of Philosophy; Kingsley's Roman and Teuton; Student's France.
4. Dickens's Great Expectations, American Notes, and Sketches by Boz; Hawthorne's Marble Faun; Bryce's Holy Roman Empire; Balzac; Farrar's Constitution; Italian
Dictionary; Ingliss's Switzerland; Reade's Christie Johnstone; Kingsley's Works; Bekker's Tacitus; Lacombe's Henry IV; Stephens's France; Thierry's Tiers Etat; Schiller's Revolt of the Netherlands and Thirty Years War; Morrell's Modern Philosophy; Reid's Works; Cary's Dante; Fichte's Philosophy; Emerson's Essays; Busch's Bismarck; Literature of Greece; Forster's Dickens.
The reading of an immature boy moving about in worlds that he was striving to realize, and building better for the future than he knew. In addition to all this reading, he made an extensive use of the Providence Public Library, which was opened the year he entered Brown.
SAM WALTER FOSS, 1882
Editor, librarian of the Somerville, Massachusetts, Public Library, poet, humorist. He entered college at twenty.
1. Hood's Poems; Grote's Greece; Emerson's Essays; Lowell's Poems; Burns; Irving's Bracebridge Hall.
2. Wordsworth; Irving's Knickerbocker, Sketchbook, and Mahomet; Thompson's Mexico; Chambers's Book of Days; Carlyle's Hero Worship; Addison on Paradise Lost; Ascham's Toxophilus; Journey in Brazil; Brazil and the Brazilians; Eloquence of the United States; Webster's Works.
3. Burns; Swift's Works; Addison; Macaulay's Essays; Keats; Dickens's Barnaby Rudge, Bleak House, and Great Expectations; Drake's Essays; Thackeray's Henry Esmond; Critical Miscellany; Carlyle's Hero Worship; Emerson's English Traits; Webster's Works, volume five; Cox's Aryan Mythology; Bryant's Homer's Odyssey; Sterne's Works; Morley's Wordsworth, also his Milton; Lyell's Geology.
DALLAS LORE SHARP, 1895
Professor of English in Boston University, lecturer, essayist, humorist. He entered college at the age of twenty one.
1. Holmes's Poems; Hawthorne's House of the Seven Gables; Taylor's Views Afoot; Seymour's Russia; Halen's Captivity; Dean's Greece; Freinsheim's Livy; Coleridge's Works; Bryant's Poems; Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter; Green's History of England; Macaulay's Essays; Aldrich's Flower and Thorn; Cunningham's Burns; Huxley's Essays; Southall's Origin of Man; Allen's Flowers; Holmes's Professor at the Breakfast-Table; Warner's My Summer in a Garden; Longfellow's Poems; Pfeiffer's Poems; Howells's Fearful Responsibility; Shelley's Poems; Arnold's Poems; Fletcher's Life; Southey's Wesley; Moore's Poems; Cape's Early Rome; Tacitus; Willis's Poems; Poe's Poems.
2. Lamb's Works; Dawson's Fossil Man; Ruskin's Sesame and Lilies; Hawthorne's Mosses from an Old Manse; Brickley's Life; Spenser's Poems; Thoreau's Walden, and two other volumes; Bain's Rhetoric; Abbott's Naturalist; Goode's Fishes; Abbott's Upland and Meadow; Staveley's Spiders; Torrey's Birds in the Bush; Cervantes's Don Quixote; Poulton's Colour of Animals; Bulwer's Rienzi; Everett's Orations.
3. Tozer's Byron; Tyler's American Literature; Beverly's Virginia; Arnold's Poems; Eliot's Adam Bede; Scott's Poetical Works; Alexander's Moral Order; Shelley's Poems; Swinburne's Poems; Forman's Shelley; Hutton's Essays; Rose's Biography; The Forum; Dickens's Tale of Two Cities and David Copperfield; Rossetti's Poems; Buckey's Life and Her Children; Taylor's Naturalist; Seebohm's Protestant Revolution; Hay's Poems; Caird's Evolution of Religion. 4. Clarke's Ten Religions; Andrew's Christ; Browning's Men and Women and Sordello; Mrs. Browning's Poems; Riis's How the Other Half Lives; Channing's Works; Spurgeon's Sermons; Henry's Expositions; Spurgeon's Hands Full of Honey; Martineau's Christian Life; Scott's Rob Roy and Ivanhoe; Morrison's Crime; Ely's Social Aspects of Christianity; Annals of the American Academy; Clough's Poems; Aristotle's Ethics.
The reading of a literary man whose choice of books was mainly running counter to the biological studies in which he specialized. But his readers are now enjoying the fruits of both his study and his reading.
What of the conclusions prompted by our twenty lists? Each has developed
in our minds a portrait beside that developed by the reader's after career. The comparison yields both affirmative and negative replies to each of our questions, the two being, of course, equally valuable. Perhaps the safest generalization from the lists before us is that they reflect in every case the intellectual alertness of the student, the range of his interests, and his mentality at that particular stage of his development. Few show a dominating purpose or a single interest, but interests shift or interplay. If this conclusion
yields a smaller pedagogic value than we had hoped, it offers a greater biographic value than we foresaw, and we may even claim for the library records that have so long slumbered in the archives of our older colleges the rank of an unrecognized source of biographic material. Certainly we carry away an impression of intellectual interest and seriousness that leaves a sense of real importance in the part played by the library in the intellectual life of college students throughout a hundred
DOUBLE-FLOWERING trees bear no fruit, they say,
And have many blossoms,
With petals shrewdly whirled about an empty centre,
White as paper, falling at a whiff of wind.
But when they are gone
There are only green leaves to catch at the sunlight,
Which hide nothing.
THE SANITY OF WILLIAM BLAKE
By Joseph Collins
RITING in 1833, six years after William Blake, the poet-artist, had gone to immortality, Edward Fitzgerald said, "To me there is a particular interest in this man's writing and drawing, in the strangeness of the constitution of his mind." That is the interest of William Blake today when his poetry fails to thrill or to inspire, and when his highest claim to be considered an artist rests on a series of drawings and engravings called "Illustrations to the Book of Job".
William Blake had visual hallucinations. At least, he had the capacity to see the creations of his imagination with the same vividness as if they had been before his eyes, and he maintained that they were before his eyes. He contended that things whose reality cannot be proved, such as angels, people deceased for ages, and buildings demolished for centuries, presented themselves in his visual field. He maintained it with sincerity and determination and he drew what he said he saw. But the fact that a man has hallucinations is not sufficient to label him "insane". Conduct that is prejudicial to others' happiness, welfare, and comfort is an essential condition, and none of William Blake's biographers or commentators has described such conduct. Now there comes along a young American who is determined to show that William Blake was sane. To many psychiatrists like myself it will undoubtedly seem an unnecessary labor, but a gratifying one, for sympathetic hero handling is a kindly thing to observe.
We never cease to marvel that persons who are "mad" can create or copy so masterfully that the admiration of contemporaries is compelled and the gratitude of posterity earned. This, despite the long list of accomplishments in the world of art and letters by men who have been potentially or actually mad.
Mr. Bruce opens one of his chapters with the sentence: "Blake, in other words, was neurotic." Now, the word "neurotic" must have some very specific meaning for our young author, otherwise he would not declare himself in this dramatic way. If William Blake was neurotic, there is no indication of it in Mr. Bruce's book. William Blake was psychotic. He had what is called for purposes of facile designation a manic-depressive temperament. The pattern of that temperament can be described with the same specificity as pneumonia can be; practically the only thing about it that we do not know is its cause, but it is only very recently that we have known the cause of pneumonia. I do not consider that this is the proper place for a disquisition on the individual psychic functions, particularly on the one known as affectivity, which would be necessary were I to make a readily comprehensible description of the manic-depressive psychosis, whether it reveals itself in shadowy outlines or majestic proportions. Mr. Bruce writes, "To say confidently that Blake suffered from mythomania, or from automatism, or from occasional hyperæsthesia, or from manic-depressive
tendencies, or that he did not tend toward a definite schizophrenia is to add polysyllables rather than illumination to the discussion of his state." This is an attitude of preciosity on the part of Mr. Bruce that is very offensive to me. If he does not know what "schizophrenia" means, then he should consult a dictionary and not display his infirmities to the world. If he knows a better word, that is, a more comprehensive or a more descriptive word for personality cleavage, I suggest that he submit it. What further illumination concerning the mental processes of an individual can be desired than is conveyed in the statement that he is a manic-depressive personality, or that he displayed the manifestations of the mental disorder known as the manic-depressive psychosis?
A few years ago, in a book entitled "Idling in Italy", I said anent Giovanni Papini (who in 1920 was quite unknown to the American public) that no one unfamiliar with the disorder of the mind called manic-depressive psychosis could fully understand him.
There is no one more sane and businesslike than the former Futurist, yet the reactions of his supersensitive nature have great similarity with this mental disorder, present, in embryo, in many people. In every display of the manic-depressive temperament, there is a period of emotional, physical and intellectual activity that surmounts every obstacle, brushes aside every barrier, leaps over every hurdle. During its dominancy, the victim respects neither law nor convention; the goal is his only object. He does not always know where he is going and he is not concerned with it; he is concerned only with going. When the spectator sees the road over which he has travelled on his winged horse he finds it littered with the débris that Pegasus has trampled upon and crushed.
This period of hyperactivity is invariably followed by a time of depression, of inadequacy, of emotional barrenness, of intellectual sterility, of physical impotency, of spiritual frigidity. The sun from which the body and the soul have had their warmth and their glow falls below the horizon of the unfortunate's existence and he senses the
terrors of the dark and the rigidity of beginning congelation. Then, when hope and warmth have all but gone and only life, mere life without colour or emotion, remains, and the necessity of living forever in a world perpetually enshrouded in darkness with no differentiation in the débris remaining after the tornado, then the sun gradually peeps up, illuminates, warms, revives, fructifies the earth, and the sufferer becomes normal — normal save in the moments or hours of fear when he contemplates having again to brave the hurricane or to breast the deluge. But once the wind begins to blow with a velocity that bespeaks the readvent of the tornado, he throws off inhibition and goes out in the open, holds up the torch that shall light the whole world, and with his megaphone from the top of Helicon shouts: "This way to the revolution."
I contend that anyone who will read even the summaries of the chapters of Mr. Bruce's book will need no further evidence to be convinced that William Blake, who had "everywhere the poet's firm persuasion that things were so, who stuck to a choice that was contemned, to a taste that was laughed at"; who was as immune to ridicule as a tortoise is to admonition; who spoke his mind on all occasions even when it clashed with authority; who, like the master potter, knew, knew, knew; who swung backward and forward from high exaltation to pits of melancholy; who listened to messengers from heaven daily and nightly and composed under their dictation a poem which he considered the grandest that this world contained, even though he was never able to find one purchaser; who received Richard Coeur-de-Lion at a quarter past twelve, midnight, and painted his portrait though he had been dead several centuries; who displayed a persecutory state of mind when he was depressed and a self sufficiency when he was exhalted that brooked no curbing; who took no thought for the morrow and was as unable to take care of himself as a two year old child, was of manic-depressive temperament and