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sense enough to come in out of the rain up in Petrarch's "Life of Solitude”, for know such things instinctively?

the inimitable sonneteer wrote his book The Decroly classroom is to be a in order to show how a man may best laboratorium and not a mere auditorium. educate himself. It is so ably edited The epigram is happy, but the original by Professor Jacob Zeitlin, of the Uniauthor of it is Herr Kerschensteiner of versity of Illinois, that comment is Munich. The Montessori method is unnecessary. Mr. Zeitlin has done his to be eschewed because it depends too translation well, and he has supplied largely on the abstract word. If the the translation with all the exegesis children are to study weights and that the normal man wants or, to draft measures, well and good, but they must a pedagogical pet, that the subnormal not learn tables; let them take a healthy man could grasp.

I can only add that hare and see how its weight increases a writer would be considered daft, in each twenty four hours as determined 1925, who would write a book of this by the additional number of chestnuts kind: Petrarch repeats and repeats; dithat will have been necessary to keep gressions he loves; of illustrations he is the scales on the level. The children as enamored as he ever was of Laura. will enjoy this; and they will have in Petrarch wants to know, or rather he the end a better understanding of would have his readers know, the best marron and lapin. John Dewey's way to use leisure. For the American How We Think” is quoted liberally people this is a momentous issue. A and with approval by “The Decroly few years ago, a laboring man worked Class".

72 hours a week; now he works 44. This is all very well; but it is old stuff. What he does with the remaining hours Belgium is welcome to it, and is to be is poles removed from humble comprecongratulated on having tried for her- hension. There are 168 hours in a self what other nations tried years ago; week, 56 of which should be slept off. for nations, like individuals, have to That leaves 112 hours, 44 of which go solve their own problems and do so by to work. No fewer than 579 years ago, beginning at the beginning. If Spin- this gifted Italian was worried over the oza had a son living today, he would wisest way to dispose of the remaining have to study Father's books just as if 68 hours. they had been written in hermetic Herein lies a lesson for professors. isolation and were just now wet from There are at present 1,000 colleges in the press. But this is nothing but the United States, or about 40,000 colKindergarten, though the word is lege professors. How one tenth of avoided throughout “The Decroly these accomplish so much in so little Class” as the word "Kaiser”, referring time I have never been able to underto Napoleon, was avoided during the stand. But what the remaining 36,000 World War when the French branch of do with their time is an even greater the Metropolitan Opera sang Uhland's wonder. They can complete the reGrenadiers". And however well this quired work of any one year in about all may be, what is Dr. Decroly going to 600 clock hours. That is two months' do when his advanced babies reach work. What becomes of the remaining Maeterlinck? Go out and fetch in bees 10 months? Or if the figures seem a bit and bluebirds in order to put sense into austere, make them 750 clock hours and his countryman's literature?

3 months. What becomes of the reA not wholly dissimilar idea is taken maining 9 months? Petrarch advises us to flee the distractions of the crowd and bottled chowchow. If you think and think. He avers that you can the student of today is to be blamed for have a jolly good time in that way. this state of affairs, withhold your cen

Knut Hamsun's "Segelfoss Town" is sure. Blame rather his elders who have merely a continuation of what Hamsun talked him into talking about things. has been doing for precisely forty years: But who knows? Possibly there showing that so called progress may is more than one Spinoza tucked away mean retrogression. He has written even now in the faculties of philosophy here a jointless epic in which the talk of our greater institutions. If so, by goes on forever in order to prove that all means let us hear these rather than such a creation of civilization as, say, the one who, after having been hounded canned beans may give people more all over Europe by other“philosophers" leisure than they had when the beans merely because they chanced to dishad to be hand picked but it is not mak- agree with him, died an obscure and ing people any wiser or happier. If welcome death at The Hague in 1677. possible, Hamsun contends, these labor

ALLEN W. PORTERFIELD saving contraptions are teaching the run of mankind those lessons of idleness

The Decroly

Class: A Contribution to Ele

mentary Education. By Amélie Hamwhich, having been learned, result

aïde. With a Preface by Ed. Claparède. ignorance and decadence.

Translated from the French by Jean Lee The soundness of his view may be

Hunt. E. P. Dutton and Company.

The Life of Solitude. By Francis Petrarch. judged from an idea expressed in this, Translated with introduction and notes his latest novel to be imported. He is by Jacob Zeitlin. University of Illinois

Press. discussing the upper classes in Nor

Segelfoss Town. By Knut Hamsun, Transway, the mental aristocrats. He says: lated from the Norwegian by J. S. Scott. “They wear glasses, a sign that as

Alfred A. Knopf. learning poured into their brains, it sucked out the sight of their eyes they cannot see.” The theory does

Notes from France not work well in Hamsun's own case; and if it does he must have been born

ÉON BRUNSCHWICG, one of the with wisdom in his very pap. For he leading philosophers of France, is has been addicted to glasses ever since best known for his perfect edition of the he was a street car conductor in Chi- complete works of Pascal. He now cago. Then it was that mist would devotes a book of 200 pages to the latsettle on them, in the winter time, and ter – “Le Génie de Pascal” (Hachette) make it hard for him to see the street - and no one is better qualified to do numbers.

this task. In Hamsun in general there is some- A foreign student of French thought thing of Rousseau, much of Dr. Decroly, will never pay too much attention to more of many of our educators who Pascal and to the controversies which lead, and still more of the contempo- he has provoked, and still provokes. rary student. The latter, like the char- Pascal lived through the great crystalacters of “Segelfoss Town", believe in lization of French culture which took "progress". They are as eager to get place toward the middle of the sevenhold of thought saving devices as teenth century. He contributed to Hamsun's Per Bua was to stock up his that crystallization as a scientist, as a Segelfoss store with readymade aprons debater, and as a religious thinker. He fought the Jesuits in his time and but the picture of actual details, and they fought him back; even today such the psychology of the Easterner, are so a master as Paul Valéry attacks his keenly, abundantly, and humorously authority and discusses his genius. brought before our eyes that the book Indeed, with his unfinished, many- has been one of the great literary desided work, Pascal breeds discussion lights I have experienced this year. I and dissent, but of the loftiest kind and wonder how little expurgation it would among the best minds of his time and need to go into English. of ours.

The same publisher gives us "MarlIn his admirable "Méthode des borough s'en va-t-en Guerre", a new Classiques Français", Paul Desjardins, play on an old popular song, but a play after a study on Corneille and one on with a most irreverent tendency. Here Poussin, explained “Les Règles de the legendary captain is shown to be a l'Honnête Discussion selon Pascal”. coward, a profiteer, a brute, and still It was, needless to say, written about worse. He is killed by a bullet in his “Les Provinciales”. Léon Brunsch- back as he tries to gallop away from the wicg reviews not only this aspect of the battlefield. The story is brought back hero but also Pascal's genius as a math- by his page, who is his rival in love. ematician and a physicist, and, finally, This noble soul (the page, I mean) feels "Pascal's Religious Experience", in the it impossible to tell the nasty truth now light of modern philosophy. As for the that his enemy is dead. So Marlborlast thirty pages, on “Pascal's Soli- ough becomes a hero. And Marcel tude”, they carry us very far into the Achard, the successful author, inclines "secret” of such a mind; and I am to believe that this is the way history tempted to say, although Asia is not often is written. A friend of mine said: mentioned, that they reveal more about “This play ought to be appreciated by Eastern philosophy (so highly religious ex-service men.'' I don't know exactly and based on solitary experience) than what he meant. many big books devoted to that sub- Non-literary shelf. Payot, the pubject. But this would take us too far. lisher, is about to give translations

Let us quickly pass to another ex- from English into French of three very treme. “L'Honorable Partie de Cam- important works dealing with internapagne" by Thomas Rancat (Nouvelle tional affairs. They are Bowman's“ The Revue Française) is not a book of phi- New World”, Lothrop Stoddard's “The losophy and does not pretend to be Rising Tide of Color", and Wells's more than a very clever, very humorous "Outline of History". Besides, Paydescription of up to date Japan. Yet ot republishes a remarkable study by it is not devoid of a certain wisdom and Dr. Legendre, called "Tour d'Horizon of certain hidden conclusions. “East Mondial”, mostly a survey of Asiatic is East and West is West" seems the affairs (the author having resided for most obvious of them. A series of many years in western China and aspects of the same insignificant adven- traveled all through the Orient). There ture, told by different people, that's all. are considerations about Japan, Russia, A European takes a young Japanese Germany, and the British Empire girl to the country, not without selfish which are well worth reading and designs. The politeness of his Japa- meditating. nese hosts prevents him from ever being Joseph Conrad, who knew more left alone with her. This is the story; about French modern writers than do


many French critics, was extremely beyond the borders of his native land appreciated and admired in France. as a prophet of democratic ideals of The“Nouvelle Revue Française" did for social justice, has just .celebrated his him what it had done for Charles-Louis eightieth birthday. All the camps of Philippe and for Marcel Proust, devot- acrid German public thought have ing an entire number to articles written joined to honor the venerable leader, about him, correspondence and post- whose energy is unabated despite his humous works of his. André Gide and

age. G. Jean-Aubry, who translated Conrad, Emil Lucka, a novelist far above the and Chevrillon, Larbaud, Jaloux, Ra- average, and author of “Frontiers of mon Fernandez, J. Kessel, were among the Soul", a noteworthy attempt to the principal contributors to this num- found a modernized 'psychology, has ber, which also contained articles by now written a most thought provoking John Galsworthy, Cunninghame Gra- book intended in a fashion to serve as a ham, Estaunié, Saugère, and others. counterblast to the pessimism of OsPIERRE DE LANUX wald Spengler. It is entitled “Urgut

der Menschheit" (Man's Early Beliefs), published by the Deutsche Verlags

Anstalt, Stuttgart, and is an attempt to What's Doing in Germany

follow the origin and course of man

kind's belief in the myth through the RITZ VON UNRUH, scion of an rationalistic period of the present, when

old aristocratic family, son and the feeling of communion with the grandson of soldiers, and now for many spiritual forces of nature is practically years leader in the forefront of militant extinct, to a future which he predicts pacifism, has written an important new when this "primæval inheritance of book in the service of the great cause of man” as he calls it will attain a new mankind. “Flügel der Nike, Buch renaissance. It is this confidence which einer Reise”, published by the Frank- sets him in a position of sharp opposifurter Sozietätsdruckerei, might in tion to the ideas of Spengler. The other hands have been only one of the question is one for posterity to decide. many travel books. In his hands it has German towns frequently contain become a spiritual document of high several well preserved specimens of the significance. He has sublimated and old square towers, furnished with walls individualized his material, memories, of immense thickness, which formed impressions, discussions, results of part of the wall encircling every visits to and talks in Paris and London. mediæval city, or served purposes of Out of the chaos of the present he sees storage. Many of these old erections the dream of the future dimly arising. are today stronger than a modern We must be the engineers of peace!” house -- and far more picturesque. cries von Unruh; and in another mood: In such a tower, left standing in the up "Let us always try to be someone's to date city of Frankfurt-am-Main, elder brother.” Winged victory, Fritz von Unruh is to live. He has a winged peace of the few men whose particularly romantic tower, with five active ardency really brings the ideal turrets, dating from the fifteenth cennearer to realization, von Unruh takes a tury. place of honor.

Elisabeth von Heyking has died of a Professor Lujo Brentano, famous far stroke. This bare fact leaves nobody the wiser; but when one explains that end of an essay, he finds that he has abshe was the onetime anonymous author sorbed a perfect picture of the subject. of "Letters that Never Reached Châteaubriand, Cagliostro, Rachel, ReHim”, the literary sensation of many a nan—such are a few of the great names year ago, the interest is explained. whose bearers come to life under the For most people she was the author author's hand. One of the most brilof one book. It was her first, pub- liant studies is that of Marie von lished in 1903, and ran into a hundredth Mouchanoff-Kalergis, the great grandedition in Germany as well as being mother of the Count Coudenhovetranslated into various languages. Eli- Kalergi whose richly epigrammatic sabeth von Heyking was descended books on the meaning of aristocracy, from the famous Bettina von Arnim. “Pan-Europa”, modern technique, etc., She was twice married, both times to reveal an unusual and truly cosmopolidistinguished diplomats, and herself tan mind. Much of the remarkable took the liveliest interest in foreign personality of the great-grandson bepolitics. Her last years were lonely, comes illuminated in the light of the for, widowed for the second time, she personality of the wonderful greathad lost both her sons in the Great War. lady who was his ancestor. Wiegler's But she was a woman of untiring ener- book ought to be translated. It is a gy who filled her great country castle substitute for many a ponderous book with war victims and young literary of biography. men in need of help, comforting her own Bruno Taut, protagonist of color in sorrows in appeasing those of others. the modern house and the modern city,

The firm of Buchenau and Reichert has written a little book “Die Neue has begun the publication of a twelve Wohnung" (Klinkhardt and Biermann, volume edition of Robert Louis Steven- Leipzig), a "Kampf-schrift" or "fightson. The first four volumes are al- ing pamphlet" to promulgate his ideas. ready on the market. A peep at "The He appeals to the women, the homeMaster of Ballantrae" shows that the makers, to help him in his fight for translator has contrived to convey a simplicity. “Die Frau als Schöpferin" good measure of Stevenson's peculiar (The Woman as Creator) appears six charm. Thomas Mann has written a times as subtitle on his front cover. glowing appreciation of the edition. With sixty five illustrations and plans,

A splendid book which, first published the little book is a challenge to think in the tumult of the war, did not re- and to dare. Bruno Taut's simplicity ceive the notice it deserved, and is now is too radical for most, but the mere receiving renewed attention, is Paul raising of the question is a breath of Wiegler's "Figuren" (Hyperion Verlag, welcome fresh air in the maze of arts Berlin). In extraordinary clear, glow- and crafts which overload most houses. ing German, Herr Wiegler masses Discussion and lively opposition the together a multitude of small signifi- little book will certainly arouse, but cant details about each character under probably a good deal of agreement and his microscope - details of dress, of some real constructive discipleship. habits, of events, of persons met and Taut's most convincing argument lies ideas encountered. When the reader, in pointing to the simple colorlessness a little out of breath mentally from the of the Japanese house, in which the rapidity of the sketching hand which Japanese moves in brilliant garments he has been following, arrives at the and disports himself on gorgeous cush

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