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must be brought on, as well as carried off, or the farm will be
soon impoverished.

Soiling, or feeding with green meat, increases the quantity
of dung in the farm yard: but a large mass of succulent
vegetables shrinks, when rotten, into a very small compass ;
and we doubt, notwithstanding Mr. P.'s assertion, that manure
made from them is of a superior quality:

Mr. Parkinson speaks of an acre of peas, for podding; as in the neighbourhood of Doncastet worth 201. This we believe is more than they ever fetch in the neighbourhood of London: 10 and 121: per aere we have heard named as a good price.

The reader will find Mr. P. a great advocate for inclosing commons: but the reasons which he assigns are rather laughable, as well as local. When also he recommends the burning of pigeons' feathers under the noses of mares, as a sure means of

reventing them from casting their foals, he reminded us of some of the curious remedies recommended by the Elder Pliny. Did Mr. Parkinson never heat that post hoc, ergo propter hoc, is a very unphilosophic mode of reasoning?

On the whole, however, Mr. P. gives a number of useful hints and directions, and his book is worth consultation : but we think that his statements of agricultural profits, on a general view of things, is exaggerated ; and that he has not, on the other side, exhibited what att experienced farmer must have encountered,--the hazards of farming.

Moy
Art. IV. Sis Essays upon Theological, to which are added Two

upon Morals Subjects. By Thomas Ludlam, A M. Rector of
Foston, Leicestershire. 8vo. pp. 129: 28. 6d. Rinvingtons:

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1798.

" Sects

The facetious author of Hudibras calls

The maggots of corrupted texts :"
but we should rather term them the offspring of misconceived and
misinterpreted texts, and should hence deduce the importance
of ascertaining the precise meaning of scriptural words and
phrases. Some of the essays before us have been written with
this view. In the first, On the word Truth as used in the Scrip-
tures of the New Testament, Mr. Ludlam observes that it is not
employed in its most extensive signification, as relating to all
kinds of knowlege, but to the truth, i. é: the certainty of those
events which God had determined should take place; or the
teality of the Gospel dispensation.

In the ad essay, he remarks that the word Revelation re-
Spects only the nature of the truth made known, not the mode

by which it is made known; while inspiration respects the way or the mode by which truth is made known, and not its nature; it implies not such knowlege, as is acquired by the customary use of our natural faculty, or by reasoning, or by mere human information, but which is conveyed to the mind by some inexplicable operation of God himself.' The knowlege derived from inspiration is imparted first to the inspired" person, and then transmitted to others; so that we receive it through the medium of writings, as we do other kinds of knowlege. Mr. Ludlam does not therefore see the use of an inspiration of words; and the different styles of the different sacred writers seem to de cide against this idea: Mr. L. observes that; - when the prophets preface their predictions with d'thus saith the Lord,” it means only a solemn demand of attention to' a message front God.'

He farther observes in the following essay, (on the curse mentioned in Gal. iii. 13.) what may indeed be well applied to the subject of this, that all language is imperfect, be cause the connection between ideas and words is wholly arbitrary, and therefore the writings of inspired personis differ not from the writings of uninspired persons, as far as the imperfection of human communication is concerned. The nieaning intended to be conveyed can in both cases only be ascertained, where it is doubtful, by the explanations of the persons them

selves; or, when such explanations cannot be obtained, col.; lected from the application of the words used upon different

occasions in their writings. This observation is extremely judicious, and merits peculiar attention in theological controversy. Allowing the Apostle to be inspired in writing the Epistle to the Galatians, we are not (for instance) assisted by it to the precise meaning of the word exayop 2 (Eiv used by St. Paul in the verse which is in part. the subject of the .3d Essay. Had he written in Latin, and employed the word redimere *, the mere position of inspiration would not have helped to ascertain the Apostle's idea. It is to be supposed that he used the word in the common acceptation of his time, and this is best known by adverting to the general application of it in his writings.

In the expression, Gal. i. 13. "Christ being made a CURSE for. us,"..the ignominious manner in which Christ was put to death is alluded to, (says Mr. L.) but not the way in which his

* The sense in which the Latin word was sometimes taken by the Antients is evident from Juvenal's mode of describing the wretch Crispinus :

Monstrum nulla virtute redemptum
A vitiis."

death

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death has its efficacy. Nothing is here said about the mode of its operation, about any translation of guilt, any commutation of punishment, aný standing in our law.place: matters either utterly impossible, or útterly unintelligible.

The 4th Essay is on the Nature of the Divine Being, as discoverable from his Works or his Word.

Here Mr. L., with his usual clearness and precision, premises that, by the knowlege of God he understands a knowlege, ist, of his Nature, and, 2dly, of his Character : that the first includeš, ist; a knowlege of his power, and" 2d, of his mode of existence, and that the 2d, implying a knowlege of the Divine Character, includes a kriówlege, ist, of his dispositions ;, 2dly, of his will; 3dlys of his intentions respecting his intelligent creatures. He then adds, such knowlege of any of these particulars, which is collected from the deductions of reason founded on the use of our several senses, I call NATURAL Religion. Such knowlege as is collected from immediate or transmitted revelation, I call REVEALED Religion.! .,

“ After this explanation, we expected to have seen an accurate line drawn between Natural and Revealed Theology: buc the remainder of the essay is mostly occupied with explaining the New Testament-account of the Son and Holy Spirit.

In the 5th'essay, the author treats on tbe Nature of Human Authority, considered as a Proof of the Truth of Opinions; containing Remarks on Dr, Knox's Christian Philosophy,

In one place, particularly, Mr. L. is rather severe on Dr. K.: but, abating the asperity of some expressions, we must péonounce this essay not unworthy of Dr. Knox's serious consie' deration. It is not only true that, by rejecting the application : of reason to religion, we do in fact make religion impossible, but the very attempts to reject it by appeals to authority serve only to establish the necessity of its exercise. sensibly observes that

.There is no weight in what Dr. Knox calls authority, when it relates to the truth of opinions, unless the maintainers of them enable you to judge for yourselves, and then this authority receives its weight, not from the assertions of the men, but from the proofs they allege ; and there is as little, when it relates to the reality of facts, unless it can be confirmed by the testimony of able and impartial witnesses, and then the authority receives its weight, not from a single witness, but from the núinbers, which, if necessary, can confirm it.' The 6th Essay. professes to treat of The Fffects of the Fall

. Mr. L. does not minutely comment on the history of what theologians call the Fall, but he offers a variety of judicious remarks relative to it. He tells us that, to suppose the fall by the Creator is to overturn the basis of all re

ligion;'

Mr. L. very

to be intended

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ligion ;' yet he allows it to be permitted, though the reason of the permission is not revealed ;- that the scripture says very little of man's original character; and that, though a change took place in Adam's original character, we are not told bow far or in what manner it affected his posterity ;- that the scriptures, when they acquaint us with the sin of man, do not inform us that this springs from Adam's sin, and no where intimate that man's intellectual faculties were injured by Adam's transgression. Hence it is evident that Mr. L is no advocate for speaking of the natural corruption of the human constitution,

Essay 7. is on the Difference between the Powers and Dispositions of the Human Mind. This difference our author thus ex plains :

The external motions of the body--the use of some of the senses -the application of the intellectual faculties to their appropriate objécts, which may be called our active powers, depend on the de. termination of the human will. The sensations of the body-the disa positions of the mind, which may more pro cíly be called our PAS. sive faculties, depend wholly on the influence of external objects. But though the exciting of certain affections be independent of the will, the degree and

application of these affections depend on it, and as far as this is the case we are the proper and ONLY objects of moral judgment."

Essay 8. on the Nature and Grounds of Moral Obligation : in which Dr, Paley's Notion of the Moral Sense, advanced in bis. Lectures on Morality, is fully considered.

Not only is every language in want of sufficient terms to mark and discriminate with precision the different ideas on moral subjects, but writers, who professedly treat of morality as a science, have not in general sufficiently weighed the meaning and tendency of those definitions and statements which they place at its foundation, After all that has been advanced in praise of virtue, the very questions--what is virtue i-wherein does it essentially consist? remain undecided. Dr. Paley defined virtue to be,“ doing good to mankind in obedience to the will of God, and for the sake of everlasting happiness.” This, however, is a very defective definition ; so also is his definition of obligation (which Mr. L. exposes in this essay). “ It is (he says) a violent motive resulting from the command * of another." Mr. L. very justly observes that a confused and obscure notion of compule sion seems, with many writers, to enter into the idea of obligation; though this idea is utterly inconsistent with the nature and situation of such beings as are the subjects of moral obliga tion. He makes the perception of what is right create in our Command is not essential to obligation ; neither is posuer.

minds the obligation, which can only be founded on the rectie tude of the conduct to be pursued; or, in other words, that Obligation means only a state of mind perceiving the reasons for acting or forbearing to act,'

It is certain that a sense of obligation accompanies a sense of duty. It is what we express by the word ought.

Our author ascertains the province of Conscience, or the Moral Sense : but for this and other subjects of inquiry, we must refer to the essay itself, which we should have gladly seen expanded.

We have perused this pamphlet with much satisfaction. It shews that Mr. L. is a man of reflection, and it is calculated to lead the mind to a discriminating and right way of thinking.

For an account of the author's former Essays, see M, Rev. vol. xxiii, p. 132. N.S.

Mo-y.

Art. V. Observations on the Structure, Oeconomy, and Diseases of the

Foot of the Horse, and on the Principles and Practice of Shoeing. By Edward Coleman, Professor of the Veterinary College, Principal Veterinary Surgeon to the British Cavalry, and to His May jelty's Most Honorable Board of Ordnance, and Honorary Member of the Board of Agriculture. Vol. 1. 4to. Pp. 128. with 8

Plates. 128. Boards. Johnson, &c. 1798. THE

He institution of the Veterinary College must be regarded,

by every reflecting man, as an object of national importe ance, as well as of private utility. The habits and diseases of the noblest animal, that we have succeeded in domesticating, have long been committed to the management of the most obstinate and ignorant of human beings; and horses, invaluable for their qualities, have been destroyed by mistaken efforts intended for their relief. It was worthy the humanity of an enlightened age and nation, to provide more able practitioners for superintending the health of our mute companions, who can form no choice for themselves; and this specimen of the instruction for which we may hope, from the new semi. nary, is well calculated to gratify the public with knowlege immediately required, and to raise their expectation of what still remains unexecuted.

* We have seçn a private letter from Mr. Ludlam, in which he , corrects a mistake in Essay yl. p. 85, where he confounds Enoch, the seventh descendant from Adam, with a prior Enoch, the immediate descendant of Cain. He would thus read the passage : The change in Adam's character did not affect the moral character of all his descendants. Enoch was the righteous descendant of a sinful progenitor.

The

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