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Natural Religion. The diligent application of a year, or a year and a quarter, to these studies, especially at the maturity of age, which the Students will have then attained, will enable them to make a very respectable proficiency.'
The author's plan, however, is liable to objections. In mathematical science, where the truth or falsehood of propositions is soon ascertainable, an examination is not attended with great difficulty, since the degrees of proficiency may be determined with very considerable accuracy. Morality is indeed a science, but it is a science of vast extent, variety, and complication; not to be learnt from books only, but from observation on real life. To the comprehension of such a science, the young student must be very inadequate. If there be truth in his reasoning, it is rather truth considered as a just and logical deduction from certain principles, than truth real, practical, and absolute. In fine, there is danger lest, if the student be early instructed in morality as a science, he should too securely and confidently rest in his own conclusions; and lest, deeming moral truth not less certain and ascertainable than mathematical, he should dogmatize and philosophize without due regard to fact and experience. The pamphlet, however, well deserves consideration.
Art. 44. Two Historic Dissertations. I. On the Causes of the Ministerial Secession, A. D. 1717. 11. On the Treaty_of Hanover, concluded A. D. 1725. With some Prefatory Remarks, in Reply to the Animadversions of the Rev. William Coxe, in his Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole. By William Belsham. 8vo. pp. 123. 35. Robinsons. 1798.
In the introduction to these dissertations, Mr. Belsham defends himself from the charges of misrepresentation brought against him by Mr. Coxe. They turn on matters of comparatively little importance, and Mr. B. appears to succeed in repelling most of them. The account of the secession of Townshend and Walpole affords a striking instance of the little motives which may occasion great political changes. The treaty of Hanover, the objects of which have been so much misunderstood, is shewn to have been formed for the purpose of acquiring territory in Germany, in direct opposition to the general interests of the nation.
The work concludes with some severe strictures on the conduct of the present ministry, as the " use of application."
This is a spirited and well-written vindication of the author's former historical works; and it contains some valuable truths, which, however unsuited to the temper of the present times, will obtain currency with posterity.
Art. 45. The Gentleman's and Farmer's Assistant; containing, first,
Tables for finding the Content of any Piece of Land, from Dimensions taken in Yards. Second, Tables, shewing the Width required for an Acre, in any square Piece of Land, from one te 500 Yards in Length. Third, Tables shewing the Number of Loads that will manure an Acre of Land, by knowing the Dis. tance of the Heaps. Fourth, A Table for measuring Thatcher's
Work, from one to 64 Feet long, and from one to 25 Feet high.
Art. 46. City Biography. Containing Anecdotes and Memoirs of the Rise, Progress, Situation, and Character of the Aldermen and other conspicuous Personages of the Corporation and City of London. 8vo. 2s. 6d. sewed. West, &c. 1799.
This biographer of lord mayors, aldermen, and one or two other eminent citizens of London, appears to have been but indifferently qualified for the task which he had, rather whimsically, set himself.. Of some of the gentlemen, with whom we have had the honour of an acquaintance, he knows little ;-of others, nothing; and not a few are (as we have good reason to believe) either imperfectly or erroneously represented. Nor is the reader made amends for the deficiency of the matter of which this work is composed, by any excellence in the manner of this very incorrect and frivolous writer. The account of Wilkes is the only tolerable article in the collection. Art. 47. The British Tourists; or Traveller's Pocket Companion, through England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. the most celebrated Tours in the British Islands. By William Comprehending Mavor, LL. D. Pocket 12mo. Five Volumes. 15s. sewed.
Newbery. 1798. We cannot give a more just account of the design of this compilement, than by the following extract from the author's preface:
The various tours through Great Britain and Ireland, which have been published within the last thirty years, amount to many volumes, and cannot be purchased but at a very considerable expence. Their authors, however, were not all men of equal talents for observation or description; nor are their works uniformly excellent or interesting. A summary, it was conceived, might exhibit whatever is valuable, in several; and that, for general readers, many retrenchments might take place, and many details be omitted, in all.
Impressed with this idea, and wishing to put that information within the reach of every class of his fellow subjects, which only few comparatively can now enjoy, the editor of the following volumes has selected, from the body of our tourists, the most celebrated works, and has endeavoured to give a faithful view of the peculiar merits and the most valuable contents of each; not with the most distant design of superseding the use of the originals, but rather in the hopes, that the attention he has paid them, will excite, or keep alive, the attention of the public; and stimulate others, who have leisure or abilities, to tread in the same steps, and to follow the same examples.'
It has been judged more expedient and beneficial, to extend the quantity of letter-press, and to give accurate coloured maps, than to please the eye alone by less useful embellishments. Almost all the antiquities and picturesque scenes of this country have fallen under the graver, or the pencil. A few plates would, at best, have Bb 2
displayed poverty, or distracted the choice in selection; and a num. ber could not be expected in a work, where cheapness and utility were the principal objects to be regarded.'
The 1st vol. contains Pennant's tours to Scotland. In the 2d we have Johnson's journey to the Western Islands; Twiss's tour in Ireland; Hutchinson's excursion to the Lakes, &c.; and Bray's tour through Derbyshire and Yorkshire. In the 3d vol. we find Sulivan's tour through different parts of England and Wales; Ar. thur Young's tour in Ireland; Windham's tour through Monmouthshire and Wales; and Pennant's journey from Chester to London. The 4th vol. contains Moritz's travels through various parts of England; Newte's tour in England and Scotland; and Shaw's jour ney to the West of England. The 5th vol. is occupied by the tour of the Isle of Wight by R. Hassel; Robertson's ditto through the Isle of Man; and Skrine's ditto through South and North Wales. Also a three weeks' tour in 1797 through Derbyshire to the Lakes, by a gentleman of Oxford.
This selection, which seems to be made with judgment, gives a view sufficiently comprehensive, and in a very small compass, of a country in which we, as Britons, must all feel great interest; a country highly favoured by nature, cultivated by industry, and adorned by the choicest productions of human art and ingenuity. As objects of this sort cannot be contemplated without exciting patriotic sentiments, we recommend this publication to the perusal of our youth of both sexes; as perhaps, in our present system of education, too little attention is in general paid to those parts of learning which lead us to an intimate acquaintance with our own country; although, without some knowlege of this sort, it is impossible for us to be justly sensible of the happiness which its inhabitants enjoy, or of the advantages which they possess.
In a former Number, we introduced to the notice of the public a similar compilement by Dr. Mavor, to which these five volumes form a proper supplement: viz. A Collection of Voyages and Travels, in 20 vols., of the same size with the present Traveller's Pocket Companion.
Art. 48. The Balnea: or, an impartial Description of all the po pular Watering-Places in England, interspersed with original Sketches and incidental Anecdotes, in Excursions to Margate, &c. 18 in Number. With Observations on several ancient and respectable Towns and Cities leading to the above remarkable Places. ̧ By George Saville Carey. 12mo. pp. 228. 3s. sewed. West, &c. 1799.
The author of this Summer Guide is the son of the ingenious, humourous, and memorable musician and poet, Henry Carey, author of the Dragon of Wantley, the Dragoness, and Chrononhotonthologos, (the three best pieces of burlesque on the Italian opera, and bombast tragedy, on our stage,) the Contrivances, a farce, and the Honest Yorkshireman, which he set to music himself; and who also wrote an infinite number of comic and pleasing ballads, for which he likewise composed melcdies that, before they were super
seded by those of Arne and Howard, justly enjoyed the highest national favour. His Salley, a ballad that begins, "Of all the girls that are so smart," of which he was likewise composer of the tune, Geminiani said was one of the most original and pleasing street airs that he had ever heard in any country.
His son seems to inherit at least a desire of following his father's steps in the same walk of wit and humour: but it is pede claudo: his pleasantry is less original, and of a lower cast. His descriptions of the bathing and water-drinking places most frequented in the several parts of the kingdom, and of the roads leading to them from the capital, are in general sufficiently clear and accurate to determine the choice of those who have visits of health or pleasure in meditation: but his style will be best relished by readers of taste when he struggles least at wit and humour; and the articles which are the least deformed by bad puns and extraneous matter, seem to be Bath, Buxton, and Ludlow.
In the article Weymouth, abounding with vulgar jokes and flippancy, his Majesty is charged with ingratitude for not settling an annuity of two hundred pounds on the author, in consequence of his fatlier having written God save Great George our King. I have heard' (says Mr. Carey) the late Mr. Pearce Galliard, an able councellor in the law, who died some years ago at Southampton, assert, time after time, that my father was the author of God save the King: that it was produced in the year forty-five and six.'-
The following letter of the ingenious Dr. Harington, of Bath, strongly corroborates the authenticity of my father's being the author of the song in question: hearing that he was in possession of this piece of information, I intreated him to make it known to me, which he politely and readily acquiesced in, saying,
The anecdote you mention, respecting your father being the author and composer of the words and melody of "God save great George our King," is certainly true; that most respectable gentleman Mr. Smith, my worthy friend and patient, has often told me what follows, viz. "That your father came to him with the words and music, desiring him to correct the bass, which Mr. Smith told him was not proper, and at your father's request he wrote down another in correct harmony."-Mr. Smith, to whom I read your letter this day, the 13th of June, repeated the same again. His advanced age and present infirmity render him incapable of writing or desiring to be written to, but on his authority I pledge myself for the truth. Should this information prove in the least advantageous to yourself, it will afford the most sincere satisfaction and pleasure to,
Your most obedient servant,
Bath, June 13th, 1795.
P. S. My curiosity was often raised to enquire after the author before Mr. Smith related the above, and I was often misinformed.
Mr. Smith says he understood your father intended this air as part of a birth-day ode, or somewhat of that kind; however this might be, no Laureat nor composer has furnished the world with any pro. duction more complimentary or more popular, which must ever be the consequence of concise elegance and natural simplicity.'
The late worthy Mr. Smith, Handel's confidential friend and assistant, may have composed bases to some of Harry Carey's melodies, as the latter never was thought to be what musicians call a good contrapuntist: but, as the late Mr. Smith's advanced age and infirmities rendered him incapable of writing, or desiring to be written to,' when the question was asked of him by the respectable Dr. Haring. ton, his memory probably failed him. We believe that it is wholly uncertain who was the original author either of the words or tune of the loyal and national song or hymn of God save the King; and we are well assured that it was unknown at the time of the rebellion, when it was brought on the stage and sung at both theatres. As to Mr. Carey's claims in behalf of his father, they can, unfortunately for him, be easily set aside. He asserts, from the authority of Counsellor Galliard, that it was produced in the year forty five and six but alas! Sir John Hawkins informs us that the facetious H. Carey, in a fit of insanity, or despondency at the badness of his circumstances, put an end to his own existence about the year 1744; and this account has been copied in the Svo. edit. of the Biographia Britannica of 1784. Though there is little reason for dependence on the dates of Sir John, the Biographia Dramatica, (much better authority,) and the Gentleman's Magazine, fix his death on the fourth of October one thousand seven hundred and forty-three.
Art. 49. Delivered in the Parish Church of Sheffield, (pursuant to the Will of the late Dr. Waterhouse,) on the 30th of January, 1799, being the Anniversary of the Martyrdom of King Charles I. To which are annexed some short Observations on the Word "Loyalty," in Answer to Mr. Urban's Reviewer. By George Smith, A. M. Curate of the said Church. 8vo. 6d. Mathews.
The subject of this sermon is Tax upon Income, and the object of the preacher is to urge his hearers to a conscientious payment of those taxes which are levied for the defence of their country. He condemns the withholding our just share of contribution to the public expences of the state, as a breach of common honesty; and to prevent taxes from being considered as so many fines and punishments on the subject for the use of certain articles of luxury, he very justly remarks that articles are selected for taxation merely as affording a criterion of the ability of the consumer to pay tribute.
We shall not make a party with Mr. S. in his controversy about the derivation of the word " Loyalty:" but we agree with him that he, who refuses to pay his due proportion to the necessary exigencies of the state, cannot be a dutiful subject, nor a loyal