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It is strange, also, that the Greeks should be imagined to have placed only the short iota and the E binor or short E, and none of the other short vowels, in the final syllable of words at the end of the lambus, or at the beginning of the Trocheus. To the latter, they had not the liberty of adding the N; and where is the short A, or the short T, or where is the short 0, or o mixpov, to be found in such a posi. tion ?- These they never admitted into it; nor can the corruption of MSS. produce even plausible instances. Who can suppose, then, that they would arbitrarily make a short vowel long, merely on account of its situation at the close of a foot in the middle of a verse, when they possessed the power of lengthening it, in compliance with metrical custom, by adding another consonant, a final Ni
The Greeks, it must be noted also, never allowed the Ictus in lambic poetry to fall on the final short syllable of an hyperdissyllabic word. Dawes thus marks the Ictus or accentus on the first three lines of the Hecuba : Misc. Crir. 191.
" Ηκώ νεκρών καυθμώνα και σκόλου πυλας
Λιπών, έν άδης χωρίς σκισίαι θεών,
Πολυδώρος, Εκαβης παις γεγως της Κίσσέως. From this scheme of marking the Ictus, the following corol: lary may be deduced : As the Ictus in the lambic metre falls on the second or long syllable of the lambus, it must be placed in the Tribrachys on the middle syllable, in the spondeus on the second,
gives: as he does-uri, Not. p. 288, where the Oxford Marbles have ; idpror, and bars, p. 299. wliere Muratori, p. 1626. edits, ilmuit, which Dorville also pursues, l. c. p. 504.
Brunck, however, is as usual inconsistent; for, as in his Apollonius Rhodius, the N is not always rejected; so in his Analecta, in opposie tion to the preceding omissions, may be added: III. 189. CXC. 75
71919 as in Gruter. 304. DCCVIII. éltuclis' ubi Leichius est conjecture Maffei, p. 64. is nãow. 711. 'Ergive from Muratori, 1502. and 311. Kei canio ir Morchi, from Gruter, II. 1036. 9.
These passages do not relate, it must be owned, to the law laid down by Mr. W. for lambics: but they may, perhaps, merit the notice of those who banish this letter before a consonant in the Casura of Hexameters. Is not Mr. W, one of that nunber?
* Bentley's mode of placing the Ictus in Iambics may be found in his admirable Schediasm on the Meire of Tcrence. Dawes abuses it, as he does its author on all proper and improper occasions ; yet from Bentley's mode his rule is evidently formed. We refer to Dawes's plan, as the Canon is his which has been just cited about the last syllable of hyperdisyllabic words. The accents are omitted, in order to prevent any mistake about the mark for the Ictus.
in the Dactylus on the second, and in the Anapastus on the third or last syllable *
Hence on Arist. Plut. 965. for -- Tüv év 1 dobi na l 1806 | Tiva, Dawes prefers the Baroc. MS. lection, iydolev, in order that the Ictus may not fall on the final syllable of a trisyllabic word, idoli, and adds: “ Severiores Musas coluisse video poetas Atticos, quàm quæ in vocis hyperdisyllabe ultimam correptam cadere paterentur.” Misc. Crit. p: 211 f.
Let us try a few of the Aldine examples which Mr. Wakefield has cited in defence of his Canon : Diatribe, p. 5. and 36. Hecub. 232. 'Ουδ' ώλεσέ με Ζευς, τρεφέι δόπως ορω.
178. Ει τις γυναικας των πριν ειρηκέ κακως. Silů. Crit. I. p. 81.
288. Και τάσδ' ερώμαι τίνες εφέστασί δoμoις.
1446. Εισήγαγέ σοφίσμ’ ομίλια χθονος. .
What confusion, it may be added, would arise in several Iambics, if the final N were neglected! For example, how would this line be divided :
Ουδείς έπλούθησε ταχεως δίκαιος ών. Menander apud Stob. Grot. Fl. X. p. 69. and p. 276, of the unfinished Stobæus of Nic. Schow.-Whether the third foot of this line be disyllabic, or trisyllabic, the Ictus must fall on the çe, the final syllable of an hyperdisyllabic word; which is impossible. -Read TAOÚTNCEV, and the difficulty or impractie cability of scansion is removed; and the Ictus rests on a syllable lengthened by position. Again :
“Ο δε μ' ήκολούθησε μέχρι τα προς την θύραν.
* The Proceleusmaticus is not an admissible foot in Iambics,
Read, uxorów@mo av, as by accident it is published by Joannis
'Εν σέλμασι νεώς σλιν, ή φέρεις ού νιν; The editions rightly give départ, which added N enables the last syllable of the trisyllabic to support the Ictus. So in this Trochaic verse in Ipheg. in Taur. 1241..
Τοις τα πλειον ειδόσι θεοίς σόι τε σημαινω θεώ, In the second Dipodia, the words istórrhesis do not form a legitimate Trochæu: and Anapastus; for in this metre, when an Anapes. tus assumes the place of the Trochæus, the regular foot, the Ictus must be made on the first of its three syllables. Thus: óvom answering to - v. The true reading is időom Beois and Osois must be pronounced monosyllabice. --Farther illustration siems unnecessary.
There is still one point of view in which this Canon of Mr. Wakefield must be considered. He asserts that a short vowel at the close of a word is lengthened, ob vim pausæ in syllabá postreniâ vocis, at the end of a foot in Anapesticis et lambicis, and in the beginning of a foot in Heroicis; and that the final N is unnecessary in such situations.
Ernesti, as was remarked, observes, in Hom. II. A'. in ti e Florentine and first Aldine Homer the final N is gene. rally omitted, in medio versu, ubi syllaba ultima est in Cesura.
Mr. Wakefield appears to suppose that the Cesura in lambics is different from the Cæsura in Heroics; for he assigns one place, namely, the close of the foot, for the influence of the Cesural) pause in the former metre; and another, that is, the beginning of the foot, for the same influence in the latter.
The lambic metre of the Tragic Poets (for we must confine our remarks to that alone) has two Incisions, or toucs. The first is the Incisio metricn, by which the vețse may be divided into single feet, or Dipodia, as : Orest. I.
'Ocx ig | 790 ov I dir del I yov w do I in ter štv 1 izos The second is the Incisio Cesurarum, by which the rhythm of the metre is regulated *: Ο | έσλιν ουδέν δεινόν ώδ' ειπείν ίπος,
Bentley * So Eentley. It was our wish to have proceeded to some length in the ülustration of the incisions of the Iambic metre: but the enormous ex. tent of this article compels us to omit what might have proved, perhaps, of some slight utility to those who are desirous of entering deeply into the metrical excellencies of the antient tragedians. We may, hqwext, refer them to the observations of the old Grammarians, pab
Bentley observes, Schediasm. de Metris Terentianis: OMNE versuum genus suam habet CÆSURAM sive INCISIONEM, qua derbum terminatur, et vox in decursu paulum interquiescit.
In the Dactylic Heroic Hexameter, this pause frequently appears to lengthen a final short syllable, which falls in the can sura ; that is, a short syllable which closes a word and begins a foot. In lambic verse, such a power of elongation could never be allowed to the Cesural pause ; for the first syllable of every foot, from the nature and constitution of the metre, may be short; and must necessarily be short, in three of the six feet of which the Senarian is composed.
If the Cesural pause were to have effect at the end of the foot, in this metre, the rhythmus of Iambics would be totally lost; and we might expect verses in which cach Dipodia would consist of two disyllables, or of one quadrisyllable: but no such verses, unless in corrupt instances, appear in the Tragedies. They would, indeed, be ranked among the xaxoiempa by the old Grammarian Trypho, whom Mr. Burgess has cited in his remarks on Dawes, M. Cr. 441. His whole note merits an attentive perusal.
It is curious to observe that, much in the same manner in which Mr. Wakefield has tried to confine the power of the pause in lengthening short vowels, to the last syllable of the foot, in Tragic lambics, JOHN CORNELIUS DE Pauw has at. tempted to fix it on the last syllable of the foot in Heroic Hexameters. This doctrine he has promulgated in several of his notes on Quintus Calaber; and he has been very justly reprehended for advancing such an opinion, by Dorville, in his Critica Vannus, p. 318 et seq.
De Pauw had also, long before the appearance of his Quintus Calaber, thus remarked on a verse which he palms on Menander:
Αρκαδικός ών τουναντίον αλίσκείας (p. 176. Ed. Cler. and apud Athen. IV. p. 132.) after he had scornfully rejected Bentley's corrections; “ Nam quod tu fortè lished by Putschius: to the decisions of Bentley, in his tract on the metres of Terence ; to those of Dawes and his learned editor Burgess; and to the remarks in the Crit. Vana. of Dorville, on the subject of the Cesural pause and power, in Heroic Hexameters and lambics. The sentiments of Dorville, indeed, are interlarded with a degrec of scurrility and abuse which is unpardonable in a philological work. De Pauw merited not compassion ; for he was arrogant, abusive, precipitate, and totally without judgment :-yet his blunders might have been corrected, by his adversary, without a forfeiture of that civilized character which becomes the profound scholar and the genuine critic.
ignoras, ego una cum Eruditioribus scio, ultima in Touravliov PRO. DUCITUR propter spiritum asperum in voce adioxil, et vim CESURÆ."-We assert, as we have on some former occasion observed, that the spiritus asper has no power, nor influence, which can lengthen a preceding short final vowel.
Instead of offering any observations on this note of de Pauw, we shall transcribe Dorville's remarks on it, from his Critica
Vann. p. 327.41
“ Vi cæşuræ tovavliov producitur, ubi ne quidem umbra cæsura est! Sane secundam do zodiar in trimetro Jambo video in ultima hujus vocis finiri, Cesuram nullam deprehendo fuin, Metricorum stolidissime, Descis cesuram in lambico nunquam aliquid posse operari ad producendam syllabam. Nam casus in hoc carmine nequit dari, ut syllaba, in quam cæsura cadit, cum natura sit brevis, ob versum fieri longa debeat. Nam' nihil vetat, quo minus brevis maneat. Imo rectius brevis, quam longa, in omni casu erit. .
« Si in hoc tuo versu fingere velis, syllabam On posse produci beneficio finite diaodices, vel, quam BARNESIU.S sæpe crepat, vi finalis, fingas boc per me licet. Imo quoniam lambicus ter feritur secundum Terentianum, p. 94. contende ultimam cujusque diardias posse produci non modo, verum etiam ultimam cujusque pedis, quoniam Horatius H. P. Vs. ait Jambum senos ictus reddere, et, EVERTE.OMNEM PROSODIAM.
The quotation is long, but it is too closely allied to the subject before us to admit abbreviation. With it we shall conclude; for it seems unnecessary to pursue this topic farther. In the arguments and proofs which have been advanced, we have endeavoured to evince that Mr. Porson, when he inserted the final N in his edition of the Hecuba, instead of rendering himself liable to censure, deserved the praise of the learned reader. - We have been desirous of shewing, in opposition to the assertions of Mr, Wakefield, that the omission of the final N, when a long syllable is den anded, is not sanctioned in Euri. pides by the authority of Aidus; and that it is not established by the steady practice of any other editor, nor by the metrical rules of any critic or grammarian, antient or modern. We
* The great Bentley's opinion on this subject, though he has ex. pressed it rather carelessly, may be collected from the following pasbage; in which he begins the examination of the defective Anapestics which Mr. Boyle had produced against the critic's and Terentian's famous Canon :
I. Την Διoς αυλήν εισoιχνεύσι
Τον δε χαλινόις εν αιθρίνοισι