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It is not necessary, we trust, to pursue this examination through more of the plays: but, in order to complete the statement, a few slight remarks must be subjoined.

The final N is in some passages Added improperly. In the ANDROMACHE, V. 1135. the Florentine and Aldine editions read:

' 'Αλλ' ουδέν ήνυεν άλλα πολλ' ομου βέλη, where Musgrìve gives yvev, ex MS. D. and Brunck /vvev, which preserves an NAPEST in tertiâ sede. This verse will doubtless be printed vithout deformity in Mr. Porson's edition.

In the TROADES, V. 354. 'Eowopovikari ára' r' {v- where Musgrave gives εσωφρονίκασιν αλλ'-preserving the termination, and destroying the verse.--V.885. Aldus has:

Ποιας, όσοι τεθυάσιν εν Ιλί φίλοι. where Musgrave reads Tevžo šv I. -- and publishes : ix'ipwa ---- where Aldus edited : V.984.

"Ηρα τοσδυλον έχεν έρωτα καλλονής και In the Herc. Fur. also, V. 3. "Ellevó lapokws with an Anapest in secundâ sede, V. 583. ως πάροιθεν, λέξομαι, for a cégoide, as it is found similarly situated in an Iambic of Hippolgtus. 290. Tüy Tipolle udy abzw. and as it must stand in. Andromacle 877.----μηδέ φαναζoυ δόμων Πάροιθε τωνδε.

V. 1167. Mévévor ÉVOT 201 - it seems as if it should rather be: Μένουσένοπλοι – as the second syllable of ένοπλος is used long in the only lambic verse, except the one quoted, in which we recollect it in Euripides : Orest. 1634. Edit. Porsoni.

'Ουκ έι', ενόπλο ποδι βοηδρομίείε. but this is not of great consequence.

If Aldus had imagined, as Nir. Wakefield does, that this final N should never be added when the following word begins with a consonant, he would surely have banished it on every possible occasion; and not have inserted it where it clogs the verse; as it does, in the preceding examples. Aldus was certainly inaccurate ; and in his MSS. of Euripides, the Attic Metrical Canons seem sometimes to have been observed, and sometimes to have been neglected. With respect to this final N, his inconsistency, indeed, may be adduced as a proof that he did not intend its omission as an useless adjunct. To carelessness, and not to design, it must be attributed that, in these four plays, he uses equally before words beginning with the same consonants both "Ωλεσεν and "Ωλεσε, Εστιν and Εστι, "Έστηκεν and "Έσ. τηκε, "Ελλησιν and "Ελλησι, Δώμασιν and Δώμασι, 'Ανδράσιν and 'Ανδράσι

Aldus was little disposed, it should seem, to reject on principle this N, for he preserves it generally with great care at the end of the verse i a custom which is more honoured in the



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observance than in the breach, and which Valckenaer strenu.
ously recommends. For example: 1. When the following line
begins with a vowel :

HECUBA. 624, 5. πλουσίοις εν δώμασιν, “Οδ'.
ANDROMACHT. 405, 6. τα δ' εν ποσίν Ουκ
απώλε εν, "Οθ' η ---618, 9.-ιν καλοισι σάγμασιν ομοι’ –
I ROADE:, 694, 5.

δρομ μασιν “Ουτω.
HERC. FUR. 272. -βουλεύμασιν. Ου γαρ. -333. -σώμασιν,
542. Διάλεσεν "Οπλοις.

705. - αγάλμασιν. 'Αλλ' δια- 1102. -βραχίοσιν "Έσωζε πλευρές ---1147. διώλεσεν ; “OP αμφι -- 12.12. –μει ζεσιν; “Απτη κ. ----1245. δαίμοσιν. "Αυθαδες ο θ.

II. When a consonant is the first letter of the following verse : TROADES, 46. διώλεσεν Παλλας

-4οΙ. -έλανθανεν Παρις --βο3. - πεπονθοσιν, where Musg. πεπραγόσιν Θρήνων- – 926. απώλεσεν Τρόιαν τε.

-Similar instances occur in the HERCULES FORENS. 44. 1ος. 153. 176. 178. 197. 613. 137.

Yet so irregular is Aldus, that in the Andromache we find in V. 1156.7.---ωλεσε Πολλών-–-and in the Irondes, -and in Herc. Fur.474.5. - τυραννίσι Παθήρ-572.3.-τοξέυμασι,Νεκρών--1335. -έξογκωμασι Τίμιον. – Also in Troad. 998.9.-έσθήμασι Χρυσώ τε.

We again assert that these omissions of the final N must be reckoned as instances of carelessness in Aldus. If he had in truth judged the letter to be of no material utility, and had supposed that a vowel naturally short became long before any single consonant, when it stood at the end of an iambic foot, would he have published πόλις instead of Πόλις *, in the following verses ? Hecub. 767. Που δ'ών ετύγχαν' ηνίκ' ώλλυβο πιόλις.

1209. Τρια, περίξ δε πύργος ειχέ7ι πιόλιν.
Suppl. 723.

Βοή δε και κωκύλος ην ανα πιύλιν.
Bacch. 216. Κλύω δε νεοχμα τηνδ' ανα πόλιν κακα.
Andr. 7οο. Σεμνοί δεν αρχαις ήμενοι καλα πίλιν.

Ιon. 139. 'Αξία γ' ημών οδουρος, και φιλουσαγε πόλιν.
In no one of these lines could liónos stand, without destruc-
tion to the metre : but in such situations as did not de-
mand the two mutes, Aldus gives IIóns.--We have observed
only one exception, which is-feãs niónov, Jon. 30. and it
must be remarked that, in places which admitted the addition
of the N final, that letter is subjoined even in preference to
the reading of πόλις. Thus in Herc. Γur. 241-εισκομισθώσιν
πολει, and 596–πασ' είδεν πόλις.

It must be allowed that several verses may be found in the Euripides of Aldus, which resemble the reading of line 101 in

Πτόλις is the poetic form : 'Εκ του πόλις καλα ποιητικό, έθος γίνελαι πτύλις. Εtym. Magn. 694. 38.


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Τις μοι

the Supplices which Mr. Wakefield prefers in his Silva Crit, I. 82. Hμων δ' ακουειν προσδοκω γαρ ΤΙ νεον. where Aldus gives και Ημών δ'ακουειν προσδοκώ τί γαρ νέον. For example: Herc. Furens, 944.

δίδωσι τόξα και τις όπλον χερός; In Mr. Wakefield's edition of this play, we were surprised at his not having followed Aldus. He has, however, admitted This domov X. the correction of Barnes, into his text: but he mentions neither the lection nor the editor of the Ed. princeps,

So also in this tragedy, of which the Aldine text is very corrupt, V. 192.

Θάνατον, αμύναι γ' αν έχων αλκήν μόνον.

and 1257:

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'Ουκ άν ανάσχοιθ' Έλλές αμαθία θανείν. There is also in this play another verse, which appears to defend Mr. Wakefield and his Canon ; 945.

Προς τας Μυκήνας ειμι λάζεσθε χρεών, , ór at least, it seems to have a final Ebinov lengthened before XP.' This, however, is one of the instances which were probably in the recollection of Mr. Porson, when he said, in the note already cited : “ Ubi verbum in brevem vocalem desinit, eamque duæ consonantes excipiunt, quæ brevem manere patiantur, vix credo exempla indubiæ fidei inveniri posse, in quibus syllaba ista producatur.

All these passages demand correction, and have been emended by editors or critics. In general, indeed, those verses, which contain an iambus ending in a short syllable, may be easily restored. The greater part merely require the addition of a final N, others demand alterations equally slight; and evident corruptions are often observable in lines of this description, independent of the metrical defect.

It must be mentioned that Mr. Wakefield, in his edition of the Hercules Furens, adopts, as he tells the reader, Pierson's correction of 'apīv&o trude xw for alle j'èy fxwv, in V. 192. In V. 1257. he publishes : 'Our av o dvxoxond "Ennasin the place of : 'Our av avar xo10E-but he mentionis neither the lection of Aldus, which favours his own Canon ; nor this addition of s', which restores sense and metre to the passage. Musgrave, indeed, only says : In Ed. Ald. deest o'.'-is omitted by Aldus, in the editions of Hervagius at Basil, 1537, 1544, and 1551; in Stiblinus's, 1562; in Canter's, 1571; in Commelin's, 1597; and in P. Stephens's, 1602*, Joshua Barnes (on

* We have pot Brubachius's edition before us. REV. JULY, 1799



what authority we know not, as he is silent in his notes) reads a'r o' avarxo:A' 'Emwhich is repeated by Carmeli, Musgrave, and Wakefield.

In the remaining passage which we quoted from this play, 945. Mr. w. gives -λαζυσθαι χρεων, for λαζυσθε χρεων, but proposes in the note:-λάζεσθ' εν χερσιν Μοχλους. -Το this cor. rection our consent must be refused. It is surprising that his Canon did not suggest to him : - Ad Guaße Xepou M-as the change is slighter, and his favourite rule might appear to rcceive additional confirmation.

It is hoped that no example either of the added or of the omitted final N has escaped our research : but some instances may have passed unnoticed ; and if they occur to the learned reader, he will readily register them in their proper situation. Our examination of the first Euripides may probably seem long and tedious: but we thought it proper to correct beyond controversy the erroneous notion, that the omission of the N before words beginning with consonants was the usual practice of Aldus. Had it, however, appeared that Aldus left out this letter always, or at least much more frequently than he inserted it, surely an appeal to the authority of his text, in order to prove that a short vowel is rendered long by its position in the latter part of an iambic foot, would be extremely hazardous. Such a reference, indeed, would tend to render nugatory the best exertions of modern critics; and would overturn the greater portion of the Attic Canons, which the scholars of the last and present century have been endeavouring to establish.

The text of the Aldine Euripides was the ground which, in the year 1755, JODOCUS JOHANNES STRUCHTMEYERUS–Peace to his manes ! - assumed, in order to defend the admission of Anapests into the second and fourth places of Iambics. He devoted the eighth chapter of the second book of his ANIMADVERSIONES CRITICÆ to this laudable purpose ; and notably has he performed the supposed duty! The success of that crític will be equal who shall contend for the omission of augments ; and who shall wish to demonstrate that the penultimate of comparative adjectives in IS2N * may be used short, or that any Ionic pe. culiarity may be tolerated in the poets of the Attic Dialect ! Mr. Wakefield + censures Musgrave, qui non semper, ut sæpi,

* We had here intended to insert a note on these comparatives : but our remarks on this point have so greatly accumulated, that they are much too extensive to be so arranged. We shall therefore offer them to the public in a future Number, 'as a Supplement to this long Article. + Silva Critica I. 81.

hano hanc scripturam servaverit. It is generally understood that this editor did not perform the arduous and wearisome task of core recting his own text of Euripides. Some friends attempted to supply his place : but, when the numerous typographical errors of this edition are considered, who can be surprised that a N, or that any other letter, is left out, or is added ? Thos: who examine Musgrave's notes, and his Exercitationes in Euri. pidem, will find that he ought not to be deemed a favourer of Mr. Wakefield's Canon. The examples of an added N are too numerous, when compared with those of an omitted N, which can be gleaned from his annotations, for them to be attributed to any other cause than his own carelessness as a transcriber, or the inattention of his printer.

Little can be advanced in favour of this Canon from the editions between those of Aldus and Musgrave; for, till the time of Valckenaer and Markland, no publisher of Euripides is consistent and uniform. They all sometimes add, and some. times omit, this final N. To the two great names which have been just recorded, must now be added that of Mr. Porson; who has shewn his accuracy by his insertions of this letter in his Hecuba and ORESTES.

It has been observed, also, that no confidence can be placed in the MSS. of the tragedies, on account of their irregularity; and that we can have no dependence on the verses which are quoted by the Grammarians and other authors; for they are most frequently exhibited as if they were prosaic citations and the final N is inserted or neglected without even the ap. pearance of systematic regularity.

The antient inscriptions, however, lay claim to some authority. The stone-cutters were, we take it for granted, an ignorant set of men: but, if the addition of this N final had been in truth merely a trick and quackery of modern times ; if the authors had left out this consonant on principle ; what sound reason can be alleged, to induce the belief that this uninformed race could ever have thought of making such an insertion ? About the metre, who can imagine them to have been solicitous ?-Yet this letter is always inserted as far as our examination has extended, in poetic inscriptions, before a word beginning with a consonant, where the verse requires a long syllable *.


The instances which have occurred to us are in Hexameters and Pentameters. The reader may examine : Chandler's Inscriptions, P. I. p. 4. IX. p. 13. XXXVII. [1. p. 58. XLVIII. p. 67. LX. Pococke, p. 30. XVIII. In Gruter III. p. 1068.oger Huo simi, [Dory. in Charit. p. 461.] Brunck III. p. 183. Ep. 169.


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