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rius multo syllaba producitur in verbo composito, si in ipsam juncturam cadit, ut in ponuxquoic Andr. 2. Eadem parsimonia in augmentis producendis utuntur, ut in instawe ey sup. 12. nexareto Sophocl. Elect. 366. Rarior adhuc licentin est, ubi prapositio verbo jungitur, ut in snériumo Phæn. 600. Sed ubi verbum in brevem vocalem desinit,
duæ sonantes excipiunt qua brevem manere patiantur, vix credo exempla indubie fidei inveniri posse, in quibus syllaba ista producatur. Ineplus esset, quicunque ad MSS. in tali causa provocaret, cum nulla sit eorum auctoritas ; id solum deprecor, ne quis contra hanc regulam eorum testimonio abutatur ; MSS. enim neque alter alteri consentiunt, neque idem N1S. siti ipse per oninia constat. Quod si ea, que disputavi, vera sunt, planum est, in fine vocis adılendam esse literam, quan
addidi,' This note is worthy of its learned writer; and from the laws which it lays down, and from Dawes's Cancns respect. ing the power of the Tenues, Adspiratæ, and Medie consonantes, when followed by the liquids and preceded by short vowels, a certain rule for the insertion of the N fmal might be derived. As to the omission of it in the last syllable of an Iambic foot, when a simple consonant follows, the voice of the Professor declares, ex cathedrá, that it is not to be allowed ; and that no one would ask the reason, nisi qui sensu communi planè careat.
It is to be lamented that Mr. Porson did not probe this canon of Mr. Wakefield" even to the quick.” Our readers probably expect that an examination of it should be attempted in the Review: yet, in following the Professor, our feelings, we confess, resemble those which Plato attributes to Socrates, when he is detained by Callias in order to dispute with Protagoras, and allows that he is inclined to grant the desired gratification. “In the present instance, however, (he subjoins,) you might as well request me to follow the vigorous steps of Criso, or to enter the course with
other racer. I should then exclaim : Πολυ σου μάλλον έξω έμαύλου δέομαι θέoυσι τούoις ακολουθείν 'Αλλ' iv yade dúvajan.” Plato. Protagor. vol. i. 336. A.
The canon of Mr. Wakefield, we believe, may be thus stated: “ The last syllable of a word, though naturally short, may be considered as long, by the influence of the pause, if it terminate a foot in Anapestics or lambics ; or if it begin a foot in Heroics. From this concluding syllable, if a consonant follow it, the final N ought always to be banished.”
This canon is evidently founded on a rule which has been adopted by some of the later editors of the Greek Heroic Poets: with what propriety, we shall not attempt, on the present occasion, even to examine. It is thus mentioned by Er. nesti, in his Note on Homer. Iliad. A. V. 2. [ionxe.]
“ Edd. Vett. 10r,Xer. Recte. In litera N vel addenda, vel demenda, parum diligens Clarkius fuit, et constans, non satis consultis libris. In MSS, et Edd. Vetto melioribus, ut Flor. et Ald. pr. in fine versus fere
additur : in medio versu, ubi syllaba ultima est in cæsura, plerumque omit. titur. Igitur accuratus Editor hanc legem debebat sequi constanter."*
It is very certain that the genuine and antient mode of writing ought to be preserved uniformly when it is once discovered. No manuscript, however, either of Homer, or of the Tragedies and Comedies, has yet been collated, in which the N peanuolixov is constantly and according to rule either inserted or neglected. The famous Codex Paullinus Lipsiensis itself, which contains from Iliad A. to Iliad P. and appears to have given risc, in a great measure, to Ernesti's rule, is not perfectly consistent in its omissions. We are, indeed, firmly persuaded that Mr. Porson's opinion is correct, when he states that this is a point which cannot be determined by the written copies of the Poets : “MSS. enim neque alter alteri consentiunt, neque idem MS. sibi ipse per omnia constat.”
Mr. Wakefield asserts that the Tragic and Epic writers are every where quoted by the Grammarians and other authors, without the insertion of the N. He produces, however, no instances; and if such as may be found were accurately and nicely weighed, they would not, we are persuaded, tend much to the defender of this canon. Mr. Wakefield's chief reliance seems to be on the copy of Euripides edited by Aldus. He refers to this in his Silva Critico, and he cites from this in his Diatribe. It will be proper, then, carefully to examine how far it really tends to confirm or destroy Mr. W.'s opinion.
We shall present to our readers, therefore, a list of the passages in which the N is added, or omitted, collected from four of the Tragedies, in the Aldine edition,
NT omitted. 363. κερκίσιν τ' έφεστάναι. . 232. ουδ' ώλεσέ με Ζεύς.389.
ώλεσεν τόξοις βαλων. . 266. Κέινη γαρ ώλέσέ νιν. 546.
τόνδεσήμανεν λόγον. 427 μαϊρί δ' ουκ έσλι χαρά. 003. νους έτοξευσεν μάτην. . 494. πασ' ανέσθηκε δορί. 1043 Τρωασιν τε συμμά- 5ο9. .
πέμπουσι δε με. κους. .
5544. "Ειπε μεθ ειναι παρθένον 1052.
αρίσλαις Τρωασιν δίκην 574. . οι δε πληρίυσι πυρών. δεμοι.
τοιάδ' ήκουε κακα. . 670.
ειδόσι δ' ωνέιδισας. .
* This remark of Ernesti has been recorded in the Acta Eruditorum for July 1760, in which there is a review of his Homer.
+ The verses are numbered from Musgrave's edition. The Choral Odes are wholly omitted in this catalogue, which comprehends only examples from Iambics and Trochaics.
1763. "Έστι δε τις σων δυτος-
777. ήνεγκε νεκρόν;
γέλοσι δ' έχη κακύν. 1178.
ειρηκε κακώς. 1179. "Η νύν λέγων εστί τις. I 200.
γένοι? αν “Έλλησι γένος. I 248. τοισιν "Ελλησι τόδε. 1253•
τοις κακίοσι δίκην.
ANDROMACHE. 171. ος σον ώλεσεν πόσιν.
973. δευβ' ενόσησε γένος. 594. ως εν ανόρσιν λόγου.
The Florentine edition cor621. μήτε δώμασιν λαβειν. responds with Aldus in this “Ελλησιν πολε.
instance, and affords two 946. οις έστιν γυνή.
others, 1106 and 1 272, noted 955. Δρώσιν γυναικών
in the opposite column. 998.
ακινήτοισιν σηκεν φο νου. 11ο6. Συν προξένοισι μαντεσίν τε
Πυθικοις, where the Floren. tine edition, in capital letters,
gives MΑΝΤΕΣΙ' ΊΕ.1207. τοις παρεσίωσιν κα
κοις, where Ed. Flor. ΠΑ.
ΡΕΣΤΩΣΙ. 1275. Πάσιν γαρ ανθρώποισιν
HERCULES FURENS. 22. – άλλους εξεμόχθησεν πό
έν ανδάσι λέγειν. ν8ς.
284. εχθρόισι γέλων. 78. πάς τ' ανίστησιν πόδα. 5ος. όμμασι δεδορκότες. 174. Συν μαρουσιν θεξις, δει-- 601. δώμασι σον ομμ’ ιδειν. 225. ων εμίχθησεν χάριν. 968.
φόνος σ' εκβάκχευσε 241.
εισκομισθώσιν πόλει. νέκρων. Ubi Musgr. tacito. 286. πολλα δώμασιν καλά. εβάκχευσεν. 304 φέυγουσιν φίλοι. 1399. - καθαιρούσι τύχαι. 545
ήλθεν Φόβος; 590.
πασ’ Σιδεν πόλις. 637. χρήμασιν δε διάφοροι. 854.
θεων ανέστησεν μόνος. 983. καπεκόμπασεν ταδε. 1002. καλέστρωσεν βέλει. 1177. τίς ταδ' έκλεινεν τεκ
να και ; 1292.
έκλεινές πόλε. 1309.
αυλοισιν βάθροις *. To these instances of the omitted N final, in the Aldine Euripides, a few others may be added: but they must not be considered as any additional proofs that Aldus judged this letter unnecessary in order to lengthen the concluding syllable of a foot, when it was naturally short, and could admit such an adjunct. The Canons of Dawes, respecting the power of the mutes and liquids, were not promulgated till above two centuries after the learned Aldus Manutius Romanus had closed a life of indefatigable exertions : a life to himself highly honourable, and of most essential service to succeeding ages! The following are the passages to which we allude, in the four plays from which our citations have been taken:
ANDROM. 853. Πασι βροεισιν ή τότ' ήλθεν ή τότε.
993. 'Αυλαις 'Αμύκλαις ήγαγε προς "Ίλιον.
απόλλυσιν καλήν. Τhis instance, though defective, and though it has been corrected, must not be neglected. Mr. Wakefield, in his edition, indeed, adopts Canter's correction, απόλαυσιν, after Barnes and Musgrave. He has not, however, given any note on the passage. It surely was incumbent on him to have mentioned the lection of Aldus ; and to have stated that the word απόλαυση was given in the text from a conjecture of Canter, which had been carefully recorded by the Cambridge and Oxford editors, and inserted by them in their editions of Euripides. Among the various and important duties of an editor, there is no one which demands more exact and religious observance, than the assignment of new readings to their original authors.
Herc. FURENS 1. TIE Tòv Aids ovalexlpor oux cide Bolæv.
531. Γύναι, τι καινόν ήλθε δώμασι χρέος. in these five instances, we deem the insertion of the N to be necessary for rendering the verses full and correct : lã71Εξεβάκχευσεν-"Ηγαγεν -"Οιδεν-Δώμασιν ---It must not be omitted that, in this last play, Aldus has himself published, V. 456: Τώνδ', θυς πανύσαι' όμμασιν προσδέρκομαι.
It is also to be remarked that Aldus, in these four plays, has omitted the N final, when the following word began with a double consonant, or with two mutes.
HECUDA. 774. Τίνος γ' υπ' άλλου και Θρήξ νιν ώλεσε ξένος.
From this examination, it appears that Aldus printed the first part of his Euripides carelessly; and did not attend with critical exactness to the insertion or omission of this final N. It never can be allowed, that, even in the opening of his edition, he deemed it a letter of no metrical influence, when placed after short vowels, which allowed its junction with them, and which were placed at the end of a foot in Iambics. It is neglected certainly in twenty-one passages of the Hecuba : but it is properly added to six others. These six assuredly would have been published equally without the N final, if he had taught himself to consider the rejection as an act of propriety. Typographical errors more frequently arise from the substitú. tion of one letter for another, or from a letter omitted, than from the addition of a letter in a word to which it does not belong.
Aldus, however, as he proceeded in his author, began to use more caution; and in the latter plays he has seldom failed to add the N final, when a long syllable is demanded by the laws of the metre. In the Andromache, the seventh Tragedy, the Aldine edition exhibits only one instance, V. 793. of this omitted final N, -and cight of its proper insertion.
In the Troades, which stands the twelfth play, this N is never omitted : but in the nine passages, in which its presence is required by the laws of the lambic verse, it is inserted correctly and regularly.
In the Hercules Furens, his last play, (for he never published the Electra,) the N is, indeed, omitted in six places : but it is properly inserted in seventeen verses, to the metre of which it gives stability and correctness.