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as the symbol of royalty, and the unicorn of strength : the latter is mentioned as such in the Scriptures.
Answered by Mr. D. Copsey. Idolatry was the peculiar sin of the Israelites. They discovered this propensity soon after their deliverance from Egypt, for when Moses went up the mount to receive the law, and staid there forty days, they set up a molten calf as a representation of God's presence to go before them. The reason why they chose this shape might possibly be because they had seen it in Egypt, the bull being a symbol of the Egyptian god Osiris or Apis. In imitation of which also, Jeroboam afterwards set up the golden calves in Dan and Bethel * The proneness of the Israelites to idolatry, prior to the Babylonish captivity, may be attributed to their intermarriages with the inhabitants of Canaan, contrary to the
express commands of God; who also, in warning them against such a connection, declared to them the danger they would be exposed to of imitating their corrupt manners. And in the moral law delivered to them, God in the first place guarded them against idolatry: “ Thou shalt have no other gods before me," &c. for they were chosen as a peculiar people, in order that the true worship of God might be preserved in the world, which was overrun with idolatry. That ihe Jews should be more cautious, in ábstaining from the worship of false gods after their return from bondage, is not surprising, since they had then experienced the severe anger of God, inflicted on them for this sin. It should also be remembered, that the tribes of Judah and Benjamin only were carried to Babylon, and after 70 years captivity, permitted to return according to the promise of God' by the prophet Jeremiah : and among these tribes, particularly the former, there were always a great number who adhered to the true worship of God. It appears that on this account, the tribe of Judah was chosen to preserve a name to David until the Messiah came, who was lineally descended from that royal house. The great body of the ten
* Collyer's Sac. Int.
tribes, or of the kingdom of Israel, who under Jeroboam revolted from the house of David, were carried captive by the Assyrians under Shalmaueser, in the days of Hoshea, about 115 years before the captivity of Judah, and never returned; but their country was possessed by those whom the Assyrian kings sent thither, called Cutheans, but afterwards named Samaritans, from Samaria, the chief city of that country. Hence, probably, arose the animosity which existed between the Jews and Samaritans, a remarkable instance of which is mentioned in St. John's Gospel, 4th ch. 9th ver.
To the same effect, were communications received from Mr. J. Baines, and Mr. J. E. Savage.
Answered by Mr. A. Nesbit, of Furnley near Leeds, author
of the Pructical Land Surveying for the Use of Schools.
The method of writing from the bottom of the page towards the top, in entering the field-notes, was, I believe, first published in the year 1795, in Dr. Hutton's Mathematical Dictionary. It was communicated to him by Mr. John Rodham, of Richmond in Yorksbire; and evidently possesses many advantages, both with regard to brevity and perspicuity, over any other that has yet been made public.
The middle column is considered to represent the chain-line; and the crossings of fences, brooks, &c. are denoted by lines drawn across the middle column, or part of right and left hand columns, opposite the distances on the chain-line, at which they are crossed ; and the corners of fields and other remarkable turns in the fences, to which offsets are taken, are defined by lines joining or lying in the same relation to the middle column, as the fences, &c. do to the chain-line. Thus a tolerably accurate representation of the fences, &c. may be sketched in the field, which will very much assist the surveyor in drawing the place.
Those surveyors who are in the habit of writing from the top of the page towards the bottom, must, I am persuaded, find considerable embarrassinent, not only in sketching the fences in the field, but also in
laying down their lines upon the plan; as, in this case, the notes are diametrically opposite to the direction in which the survey is taken. In short, the method of writing, from the bottom of the page towards the top, so far transcends every other with which I am acquainted, that, in my opinion, it needs only to be known to he approved ; and I have no doubt but that it will, in a short time, be universally adopted.
“ A Contributor," and Mr. John Johnson, Land-surveyor of Miltham near Iluddersfield, expressed similar opinions.
QUERY 28. Mr. Arthur Hirst says,
" I think the most simple method of doing this without any apparatus, is by standing as erect and steady as possible, and pulling down the brim of the hat until some object on the other side of the river just appears in view, then turuing on one side, and fixing the eye on some object on the same level with the former; having strided or measured the distance between the place of observation and this last object. I have very often found it give me the breadth of the river with astonishing exactness. I should have called this my own invention, had not I mentioned it to a friend a few days ago, who told me it was not new, and showed it me in a small book entitled, “The Grammar of Geometry.”
A similar answer was received from Mr. Putsey, the proposer.
Mr. Nesbit communicated the following method: Let A B denote a section of
B the river, and make A C= CD, erect D E perpendicular to AD, and when you
A А have arrived at the point E, in a direct line with B C, the
E distance D E will be equal to A B, the breadth of the river; for the triangles A BC, CDE are evidently similar and equal. If A C be not made equal to CD, the breadth of the river may then be obtained by similar triangles.
Mr. John Baines also favoured us with a very ingenious solution to this query.
QUERY 29. Vide « Essay on Nothing," inserted in this number.
QUERY 30. Mr. J. Baines observes, that "poetical expressions generally strike an audience more forcibly than prose compositions. The most uncultivated man will listen with attention to a poetical barangue; and the man of learning is charmed with the noble, energetic, and figurative expressions which constitute the soul of poetry. Prose language is too common and plain for public entertainment, especially where motion is requisite in exhibition ; for who can address an audience with a graceful and becoming air, unless the strength of the narrative prompt him to it? Therefore, in my opinion, blank verse is more suitable for dramatic composition than prose.”
Query 31. Answered by Mr. Michael Harrison, of Crosland, near
Huddersfield. Probably in heating iron red hot, a portion of carbon from the fire combines with it. If cooled again in the atmosphere, the carbon flies off in carbonic acid gas, and the iron is as soft as before ; but, if it be immersed in water while ignited, it suddenly checks the dissipation of the carbon, decomposes the water by taking its oxygen from it, and renders the iron, or more properly the subcarburet of iron, more hard and brittle.
In my opinion, the soft and hard qualities of metals are owing to their different capacities for caloric; that which has the greatest capacity being the softer metal. Copper, when allowed to cool slowly in the atmosphere, assumes a crystaline form, and, according to Abhé Mongez, in quadrangular pyramids; the surface becomes oxidized, the oxide combines with carbonic acid gas, and makes the outside more hard and brittle. See Dr. Thomson's Chemistry, and vol. iv. p. 8, of Montucla's Recreations, translated by Dr. Hutton.
Copper in heating cannot obtain carbon from the fire, as it cannot be artificially combined with it. Copper is incapable of decomposing water, even at a red
heat; it cannot, therefore, in cooling, take oxygen from the water when immersed in it. If
and carbon would unite, we migbt suppose, from analogical reasoning, that the composition would be as hard and brittle as sulphuret and phosphuret of copper. In such a combination probably they would, when red hot, decompose water, get oxygen from it, and become hard and brittle in sudden cooling; but the reverse is the
When the red heat of copper is suddenly carried off by water, or any other cold liquid, it stops the crystals from being so firmly inserted into one another, as they would be if they cooled slowly in the atmosphere. Thus, sudden cooling gives copper a greater capacity for caloric than slow cooling, which is the reason why copper is softer when-cooled in a cold liquid than in atmospheric air.
QUERIES PROPOSED FOR DISCUSSION
IN THE SIXTH AND SUCCEEDING NUMBERS.
i Qu. (32) By Mr. M. Harrison, Crosland, near
Huddersfield. Why will not wax convey the electric fluid equally as well as iron?
2 Qu. (33) By the same. In what respects is a philosopher superior to a clown, supposing their situation in life to be equal ?
3 Qu. (34) By the same. Does fear cause the hair to stand erect? if it does, what is the reason ?
4. Qu. (35) By J. H. N. near Leeds. From whence proceeds the sweet and glutinous fluid, generally termed “ honey-dew,” which is frequently found on the foliage of trees during the summer-months ?
5 Qu. (36) By the same. Where did the barbarous, and savagely cruel, practice of cock-fighting originate?