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person spoken to; and third, the person spoken of; we might therefore conclude, that nouns would likewise admit of three persons. But the only situation in which the noun can be used in the first person, is when the speaker or writer puts his own name for the nominative case to the sentence; or rather adds it by apposition to the nominative case already expressed; which is not often requisite, except where great punctuality is required, and the subject has not been previously introduced. We sometimes find this mode of speech in the Holy Scriptures: as "Then I, Daniel, looked, &c. Dan. chap. xii. ver. 5. But as expressions like this seldom occur, it seems unnecessary that we should distinguish a first person of the nouns indeed, properly speaking, they will not admit of it; for in the sentence here quoted, the noun Daniel is only a repetition of the same nominative, and therefore either it or the pronoun is superfluous: but if the pronoun be expunged, the noun will become of the third person. But, though the nouns will not admit of a first person, that they are of the second person, when used in the vocative case, cannot be denied: for it is evident that when one person is addressing himself to another, or to an inanimate thing, the person or thing addressed must be of the second person, according to the definition of the pronoun given above. As, for example: "Solomon, my son, love thou the God of thy fathers;" "Ye winds that have made me your sport;" hence substantives are not always of the third person; but only so when spoken of, and of the second person spoken to, as defined by Mr. Murray. Therefore the definition stated in the query is incorrect.

Of the same opinion are Miss A. Kemp, Mr. W. Philpott, of Thaxted, and Mr. J. E. Savage.


Answered by Mr. D. Copsey, of Focking.

The fact that a current is continually flowing from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean has been long established, and it was formerly supposed, that there was a subterraneous communication with the ocean, which took off the surplus water; but it has since been

ascertained by Dr. Halley *, that the water extracted from the Mediterranean in vapour, is more than sufficient to counterbalance the influx. For by experiment he found, that in a certain degree of heat, the 60th part of an inch of water is exhaled every two hours; and consequently, the 10th of an inch in 12 hours. Hence allowing the Mediterranean to be 40 degrees long, and 4 degrees broad at a medium, and consequently its whole surface 160 square degrees, it will in every twelve hours yield 5280 millions of tuns of water, whereas it receives from its nine great rivers, only 1827 millions of tuns per day, which is only of what is exhausted in vapours; so that were it not for the constant influx from the Atlantic, it would soon be rendered dry. And, indeed, its surface being lower than that of the ocean, as appears from the current, proves that no such subterraneous communication exists †, for if this were the case, the Mediterranean must receive water from the ocean, in order to preserve a level.

Of this opinion are Mr. A. Hirst, of Marsden, and Miss A. Kemp, of Homerton.

I. H. N. near Leeds, observes, "It is well known that in some parts of the sea, there are currents running in different directions at the same time. This has been proved by an experiment which was made in the Baltic Sound some years ago. A pinnace with a few sailors on board, sailed into a strong mid-stream, and were immediately carried before the current with great velocity. They let down into the water a sort of basket, with

ponderous cannon shot in it, which immediately gave a check to the motion of the pinnace, and by sinking the basket to a greater depth, the boat was driven a-head to the windward against the current, which, previous to the basket being let down, carried the boat before it. On this principle (of under currents) the equality of the water in the Mediterranean sea is to be accounted for."

Mr. W. Putsey, of Pickering, observes, "that the subject of this query exhibits one of the most extraordinary appearances in nature; this large sea receiving

*Philos. Trans.


not only the numerous rivers that fall into it, such as the Nile, the Rhine, and the Po, but also a very great influx from the Euxine sea on one part, and the ocean on the other; at the same time it is seen to return none of those waters thus received. Outlets running from it there are none; nor rivers, but such as bring it fresh supplies; no straits but such as are constantly pouring their waters into it. It has therefore been the wonder of mankind, in every age, how, and by what means, this vast concourse of water is disposed of; or how this sea, which is always receiving and never returning, is no way fuller than before. Many have been the opinions concerning it; but the most probable of them is that of Dr. Smith, who supposes a under current to be continually running, which carries as much water into the ocean, as the upper current carries from it. The Doctor's opinion has been further confirmed, by an experiment.communicated to him by an able seaman, on board one of the king's frigates in the Baltic.

Mr. John Baines junior, of Horbury Bridge near Wakefield, says, "Every time the tide flows, the water will undoubledly run through the straits of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean sea; but not in any sufficient quantity to cause a sensible tide, (though there must be some increase on the coasts of Spain and Morocco, but not on the Egyptian shores, and the Turkish Asiatic dominions ;) because the inlet is indefinitely small in comparison with the whole surface of that extensive sea. But I cannot think, that during the ebbing of the tide, any water will run through the straits into the Mediterranean; on the contrary, it seems more probable, that the small quantity which ran in during the flowing, will then run back again into the Atlantic.

Nearly similar is the answer given by Mr. J. E. Savage.


No communications have been received relating to this query.


Mr. J. E. Savage observes, "I think there are five modes-viz. The indicative, the imperative, the poten

tial, the subjunctive, and the indefinitive”—and adds, "of this opinion are Blair, Levett, and Murray, three of the best writers on the English language, that I have yet met with."


Mr. Savage is of opinion, that the rule in question is correct; he observes that Blair has given very nearly the same rule, but that Fenning says, "A great many things comprehended in one, ought rather to have the verb is than are" as, "A multitude is coming," ،، This people is a rebellious people."

Mr. Philpott also answered this query as follows: "Perhaps no better rule than Murray's can be given; yet respect is chiefly had to common usage. The following sentences are equally agreeable to the ear: The committee were divided in their sentiments, and they have referred the business to the general meeting." "The committee was very full when this point was decided, and its judgment has not been called in question."

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We may observe that whenever a question is asked, this distinction (regard to the import of the word) is not attended to; as, "what committee was it?"


Answered by Mr. D. Copsey.

Coats of arms, or armorial bearings, came into use in England in the reign of Richard I. and were hereditary in families in 1192. It was customary with the knights, to paint their banners with different figures to distinguish them in the crusades. Some say that they had their first origin, in the common custom of the ancient Germans painting their shields with various colours*. Others trace it higher, and say that they originated in the custom of the primitive people staining their bodies with different colours, to distinguish them from each other. Possibly it may have been derived from the idolatrous nations, who used to carry with them to war, standards bearing representations of their favourite * Adams's Summary, p. 557.

gods. The standards of the different tribes of the Israelites, are also mentioned in the order of their marches, in the book of Numbers, second chapter; and the name Maccabee *, is said to be derived from the initials of the Hebrew words on their banners (Mi Kamoka Be Elim, Jebovah? Who is like unto thee among the gods, O Jehovah? Exod. xv. 11.)


In appropriating peculiar animals to the device, by which it was intended to celebrate any remarkable property in the person assuming armorial bearings, ideas were probably often taken from Scripture. În this manner the unicorn may have been assumed, as a supporter in the royal arms, from such frequent expressions in holy writ as the following: "My horn shall be exalted." My horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of a unicorn." The following extract from the "Curiosities of Literature," will afford additional information on this subject. "Mr. Bruce in his travels observed in a cavalcade the head-dress of the governors of provinces. A large broad fillet was bound upon their forehead, and tied behind their head. In the middle of this was a horn, or a conical piece of silver, gilt, much in the shape of our candle-extinguishers. This is called kirn or horne, and is worn in reviews only, or public rejoic ings for a victory. This custom, borrowed from the Hebrews, our traveller conceives, will explain the several allusions made to it in Scripture." Though it is, I believe, generally supposed that the unicorn is a fabulous animal, yet there are some circumstances which go to prove its real existence. Sparmann says that the figure of a unicorn has been found delineated by the Sinese Hottentots, on the plain surface of a rock in Caffraria, and therefore conjectures that such an animal, either does exist at present in the interior of Africa, or at least once did so. Father Lobo affirms that he has seen it: and Mr. Barrow, in his travels in Southern Africa, affords additional reason to believe in the existence of this curious animal +.

Miss A. Kemp (aged 14) says, "The lion is considered

*This derivation of the name is objected to by some. See Whiston's Josephus, Antiq. lib. 12. c. 6. note.

+ Encyclop. Britan. art. unicorn.

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