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degree inclined to evil, so were the wicked ones typi cally called the daughters of men. In consequence of the sons of God, or the virtuous, degenerating by mixing with the daughters of men, or the vicious, their issue “ became mighty men,” by which I suppose is meant: the ancient giants who, according to the heathen mythology, warred against love.—This explanation, con founding the heathen and scriptural systems of religion, may by some people be judged improper; but I must, be allowed to think that there exists a very great, and, in many cases, an apparent connection between the two religions; and in this opinion, I believe, I am not quite singular.

Master. W. Harrison and Mr. Thomas Walker, of Farnley, also answered this query.


Answered by M. Harrison, Crosland, near Huddersfield.

Add barytic water till saturation, taking care to avoid excess.

The insoluble sulphate of barytes will be precipitated, and may be separated by a filter. A solution of malic acid passes through the filter, which may be evaporated to expel the superabundant water added in the barytic water; and in this state, if excess of barytic water be avoided, we shall obtain a solution of the malic acid in a state of tolerable purity.


Answered by Mr. M. Harrison. I do not know any other method of accounting for the curious fact mentioned in this query, except the following:

We kuow-that prussic acid precipitates all the oxides of iron at present known, from the brown to the black oxide. And yet, though prussic acid precipitates all the known oxides of iron, still the state in which the oxide is retained in the triple prussiate, is almost unknown to us.

In my opinion the minimum oxide of iron has not yet been discovered, but exists in solution in the triple prussiate. Though all other oxides of iron are preci

pitated by the triple prussiate, yet we do not know that this is exactly the case with the minimum oxide, or that which contains the smallest quantity of oxygen.' In fact, it may differ so much from the others, as to be soluble in the simple prussiate, instead of being precipitated by it. Now this supposition being made, we may, I think, account for the fact alluded to in the query: In preparing the triple prussiate, we will suppose that the iron added to fix the simple prussiate, becomes disoxygenised, that is, reduced into the state of the minimum oxide by some peculiar cause unknown; then, if this conjecture bé correct, the oxide ought to be dissolved instead of being precipitated by the simple prussiate, which we find to be the case. I do not know how far I am justified in supposing that there is an unknown low oxide of iron, several facts appear to bear me out in the supposition, and it would be impossible to explain the fact which gives rise to. this

query, without bringing in the aid of this idea.


Answered by Mr. E. S. Eyres, (the proposer). The method I have generally made use of, to obtain azotic gas, is by disengaging the marine acid in its aerial form over a receiver, containing the purest volatile alkali, which is thus decomposed, its hydrogen combining with the oxygen of the acid, while the azote is separated, and may be received in a state of great purity.

Answered by Mr. I. Nowell. For obtaining azotic gass, I have for some time made use of the following process; and though it differs from the methods generally practised, it far exceeds them in point of accuracy, neatness, and expedition.

Provide a tolerably stout glass tube 12 or 14 inches long, and in diameter about of an inch. Seal one of its ends, either hermetically or by means of a cork, and divide the tube into any number of equidistant parts; for instance, into one bundred. This being doné, fit into the unsealed end a common cork, and

make it perfectly easy to be removed, or if a glass stopper or small brass cock were adapted, it would answer so much the better. In the next place, prepare a small quantity' of nitrous gas, by introducing a few shreds of copper into a retort, and pouring upon them a little nitre acid; apply heat, and receive the gass over water. Take the glass tube mentioned above, fill it with water, and invert it on the shelf of the pneumatic trough. Throw up into it 50 measures of atmospheric air, then introduce 50 measures of the newly prepared nitrous gas, and instantly cork the tube under water ; an absorbtion of the oxygenous portion of the atmospheric air introduced takes place, and a partial vacuum succeeds, which exists if we keep the cork or cock well closed. Now the tube should always contain more nitrous gas than is necessary to condense all the oxygen; to remove this nitrous gas from the remaining azote, introduce the corked part of the tube into a strong solution of sulphat of iron, and remove the cork, the sulphat of iron rushes in to supply the place of the vacuum, now cork the tube and employ agitation. The nitrous

gas becomes absorbed by the sulphate, and the azote is left behind pure, occupying in bulk about 39,5 or 40 measures of the tube.


Answered by Mr. Bamford. The opinion advanced by Rousseau does not appear to be corroborated by fact, for there are many men whose proficiency in the arts and sciences, and whose wide and liberal views and comprehension of knowledge, fully entitle them to the name of philosophers, who never make that proficiency and those comprehensions known to the world, and who pass through life with very different characters to what their deserts entitled them to, had not the innate modesty, and unassuming diffidence always attendant on real knowledge, unfitted them for the intercourse of the world. Such men in retirement and solitude, unknown to the world, court wisdom, for wisdoni's sake; they seek after, truth, because they regard it as the ultimatum of per

fection; and thus they falsify the opinion of Rousseau, by obtaining wisdom without the reputation of it.

Mr. Baines and Mr. M. Phoston expressed similar opinions.

Answered by Mr. D. Copsey. Solomon says, “ through desire a man having separated himself seeketh and intermeddleth with all wisdom;" this desire, I think, may be fairly referred to the love of fame, which, if it' be not a universal pas. sion, is nevertheless a very powerful motive.

There are few writers or students who are impelled solely by the love of knowledge. An eager thirst for literary renown is the grand stimulus in the learned world. It is for this the philosopher consumes the midnight oil; for this he is contented to devote himself to the weariness of study: he looks forward to that enviable height on the hill of science, when he shall be appealed to on subjects of doubtful issue, and when his ipse dixit will be sufficient to quiet the most con-tentious, and satisfy the most scéptical.

While some have meanly sought to acquire this celebrity, by laying claim to performances not their own, others have candidly and openly avowed the secret spring of all their learned labours.

A desire of gaining the applause of our contemporaries, and of perpetuating the remembrance of our names and exploits, lives in every breast; it is shown even by the simple unlettered hind who carves his name on the bark of trees.

- behold the proud alcove,

yet not all its pride secares
The grand retreat from injuries impress'd
By rural carvers, who with knives deface
The pannels, leaving an obscuire rude name,
In characters uncouth, and spelt amiss.
So strong the zeal t’immortalize himself
Beats in the breast of man, that ev'n a few,
Few transient years, won from th' abyss abhorr'd
Of black oblivion, seem a glorious prize,
And even to a clown.

Couper's Task. Book I, This principle is so predominant in us, that almost all the common actions of our lives are performed with

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a view, not so much to our own individual convenience as to what others will say or think; so that what Pope says may be applied equally to the learned and unlearned, to the poor as well as the rich :

“ Abstract what others feel, what others think,
All pleasures sicken, and all glories sink.”

Query 62. Answered by Mr. E. S. Eyres. It is generally allowed that transparency consists in the regular position of the pores of a body, and in this case the irregular pores of the paper are in part filled with the oil, and so allow the light a more direct passage. The same effect would in some degree be produced by the saturation of the paper in any liquid, as water; and the same reason may be assigned to account for it.

Answered by Mr. John Nowell. Light passing through bodies, (deviating more of less from its course by approaching the perpendicular) constitutes transparency.

When a ray of light passes obliquely into a denser medium, it is refracted towards the perpendicular, and of two refracting mediums of the same density, that which is of an unctuous or fat nature will have the greatest refracting powers. The ratio in which bodies refract light is in proportion to the quantity of hydrogen they contain. The fixed oils contain a pretty large quantity; the same may be said of water. The wonderful genius of Newton anticipated this discovery; after examining the refractive powers of water, and also of the diamond, he concluded that each contained incombustible matter. M. Biot has applied this grand idea of Newton's to a happy method of judging the composition of bodies, abounding in hydrogen, with the most perfect success.

Answered by Mr. John Smith. The cause of opacity in bodies consists in the unequal density of the parts, in the magnitude of the pores, or in the pores being either empty or containing matter

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