Page images

I know not well what religion these wild people profess. But we must send some missionaries to convert them to our faith, to the holy profession of MAGOTISM, without which no man can be saved. Their bodies are undoubtedly ours, by every law human and die vine; and we shall send them to the shambles by thousands, according to the statutes of Tihi, concerning peace and war. But Heaven forbid that we should not previously endeavour to save their souls, for we cannot sell that aërial part. If a few myriads be roasted by a slow fire, and remarkably well basted, I could almost answer for the conversion of the rea mainder. Adieu !.





Answered by Mr. S. Lavel, Boston. I PRESUME that the intention of boiling wort, previous to fermentation, is to facilitate the decomposition of the wort, which is afterwards to be completed in the gyle

The wort, previous to boiling, is one uniform turbid wash, and would remain so, were no boiling or fermentation to take place. The process of boiling causes the parts which before were intimately united, 'to separate, and the wort then assumes a transparent appearance, with little flaky concretions floating in it. When the wort is in a state of rest, these concretions will subside to the bottom, and they are then called the grounds. I believe it is possible, by fermentation alone, to produce a transparent liquor, but the time requisite to accomplish it generally changes the wort into vinegar. The brewer, however, has another object in view, namely, the extracting the bitter principle from the hops, which cannot be conveniently effected by any other method than that of boiling them in the wort; and the time sufficient to extract the flavour of the hop will suffice to separate the component partia

cles of the malt, so as to produce, by fermentation, a vinous, transparent, and palatable beverage. The distillers, whose only object is to obtain ardent spirits, do not boil their wort.

Mr. Joshua Bamford, of Holthead Seminary, near Huddersfield, says, brewers boil their wort in order to make it ferment more easily, and to clear it from impurities; also to get the strength of the hops, although the hops should not be boiled too long, as they then would lose their aromatic flavour, and the wort have a nause. ous hitter taste.

Mr. John Norell, of Farnley Wood, near Hudders. field, says, If we add yeast, or any other ferment to wort, in a moderate state of concentration, we shall, after a little time, find a decomposition take place; at first caloric is given off, which gradually heats the liquid to a certain degree. When the wort throughout is advanced to a proper temperature, we perceive a further consequence of the decomposition, in carbonic acid being given off in abundance. If the wort be kept at its proper heat, the decomposition proceeds with facility ; but if we reduce the temperature, by conducting away any of the caloric, the carbonic acid ceases to be given off in such abundance, and the process is only partial. Again, if the caloric be returned, the fermentation proceeds as before; consequently a proper quantity of caloric is necessary to excite, as well as to keep up, the fermentative process. This being the case, I think we may now readily account for the practice, which is the basis of the query. When brewers obtain their wort, it is necessary, in order to exhaust all the extractive matter, &c. from the malt, to add a superabundant quantity of water, otherwise a certain small quantity of extract would remain in the malt; for it is a well-known fact to those 'versed in chemical experiments, that water, as well as other liquids, is capable of holding more of some substances in solution, than it requires of those substances to be saturated in a direct way. "Now if

any brewer should attempt to excite fermentation in this stare of their wort, disappointment would be a necessary conse. quence; because the large quantity of water contained

would carry off the caloric to surrounding bodies, on account of its extent of surface. Brewers, therefore, boil their wort, previous to fermentation, in order to expel the superabundant water.

Answered by Mr. J. Smith, Alton Park. In the operation of brewing, the wort is boiled for the following reasons: First, to extract the essential oil of the hops.---Secondly, to coagulate the mucilage extracted from the malt in mashing, which if suffered to remain in solution in the beer, would prevent it from becoming fine: it is, therefore, boiled “ previous to fermentation," this latter process effecting a separation of the mucilage from the beer in the forms of yeast and lees.—Thirdly, to expel, by vaporisation, a portion of the water used in mashing, by which means the strength of the liquor is increased.

Mr. J. Baines, Jun. of the Mathematical School, Reading, also sent an ingenious solution.


Answered by Mr. J.B-1, London. Cuckoos appear in our country early in the spring, and make the shortest stay with us of any birds of passage, as they generally take their leare of this. country during the first week in July.

“ The Cuckoo sings her idle song,

nor does she cease
Her changeful note, until the broom, full blown,
Gives warning that her time for flight is come;
Thus ever journeying on from land to land,
She, sole of all the numerous feathered tribes,
Passes a stranger's life without a home.

Graham's Birds of Scotland.. In migrating the major part of these birds are supposed to go into Africa, since they are observed to visit the Island of Malta twice a year, in their passage backward and forward, as is supposed to that part of the world. The cuckoo is well known at Aleppo ; it is also com. mon in Sweden, but does not appear there so early

by a month as with us. It has been supposed by some, that these birds do not quit this island during the winter, but that they shelter in hollow trees, and lie torpid, unless animated by unusually warm weather. Mr. Pennant gives two instances of their being heard in February; one in 1771, in the end of that month, the other in 1769, on the 4th day ; but after that they were heard no more, being probably chilled into a torpid state. These, however, are solitary instances, and of no weight against the idea of their migration, which is, I believe, a fact generally allowed and believed by naturalists.

Mr. J. Smith, and Mr. J. C. Savage, of Surfleet, express similar opinions.—Mr. Smith observes, young cuckoos are seen here much later than the beginning of July."

Mr. Bamford supposes that the cuckoo lies in a torpid state during the winter months, but does not mention any instance of their being found in that condition.

Miss Groves, of Spalding Seminary, (aged 16) sept some very ingenious remarks on this query; as did also. Master W. Harrison, of Burton Pidsea, aged 14.

«s that


Answered by Mr. J. Smith.. By the expressions in question, we are to understand the male descendants of Abel, and the female posterity of Cain. The former, from their adherence to the worship

and service of the Almighty, are, in the language of scripture, emphatically termed “sons of God ;”. while the latter, from the licentiousness of their conduct, and their disregard of religion, are called “ daugbters of men,' Mr. Bamford is of the same opinion.

Answered by Mr. D. Copsey, London. The sons of God in the passage are generally understood to signify the angels, though some suppose them to be the offspring of pious Seth *, who began to call

* Genesis iv, 26.

upon the name of the Lord; or, as others say, to call themselves by the name of the Lord ; and who, adhering to the worship of the true God, were named the sons of God, in contradistinction to those who, being idolaters, are said to be the children of the wicked one. The former explanation seems to be most probable, and is supported by various parts of scripture. In Job, chap. i. ver. 6, the sons of God are represented as presenting themselves before the Almighty; and in chap. xxxviii

. ver. 7, the sons of God (i. e. the angels) who kept their first estate, 'are said to have shouted for joy when they beheld the world rise into existence. But in the verse referred to in the query, the fallen angels must be intended. Josephus, in relating this fact, observes, that

many angels of God intermarried with women, and that the fruit of these unions proved unjust, and de. spisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians called Giants *.”--Antiquities, lib.i.

[ocr errors]

cap. 3.

In this sense it is also mentioned by Mrs. Rowe in the History of Joseph, book i.-Moloch, addressing Mithra in the infernal council, says,

“ The bold example of thy loose amours
Prevailed on numbers of the heavenly pow'rs i
Who vainly had the first probation stood
Pronf to ainbition obstinately good.
Long after I, with my associates fell,
Thy friends enlarg'd the monarchy of hell;
On softer motives you abhorr’d the skies,
Allur'd by women's captivating eyes ;
The sons of God thus with the race of man:
Were mingled; hence the giant stock began."

Answered by Mr. E. S. Eyres, Liverpool.
By the sons of God I suppose is meant such of man.
kind as followed the precepts of God, in the same
manner as the disciples of Plato or Socrates are often
called the sons of Plato or Socrates.

And since man, from the time of the fall, has always been in some

* This notion that the fallen angels were in some sense thr fathers of the old giants, was the constant opinion of antiquity,

« PreviousContinue »