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I know not well what religion these wild people pro-> fess. But we must send some missionaries to convert them to our faith, to the holy profession of MAGOTISM, without which no man can be saved. Their bodies are undoubtedly ours, by every law human and di. vine; and we shall send them to the shambles by '. thousands, according to the statutes of Tihi, concerning peace and war. But Heaven forbid that we should not previously endeavour to save their souls, for we cannot sell that aërial part. If a few myriads be roasted by a slow fire, and remarkably well basted, I could almost answer for the conversion of the rea mainder. Adieu !.
SOLUTIONS AND REPLIES
cles of the malt, so as to produce, by fermentation, a vinous, transparent, and palatable beverage. The distillers, whose only object is to obtain ardent spirits, do not boil their wort.
Mr. Joshua Bumford, of Holthead Seminary, near Huddersfield, says, brewers boil their wort in order to make it serment more easily, and to clear it from impu. rities; also to get the strength of the hops, although the hops should not be boiled too long, as they then would lose their aromatic flavour, and the wort have a nause. ous hitter taste. . • Mr. John Norvell, of Farnley Wood, near Hudders. field, says, If we add yeast, or any other ferment to wort, in a moderate state of concentration, we shall, after a little time, find a decomposition take place; at first caloric is given off, which gradually heats the liquid to a certain degree. When the wort throughout is advanced to a proper temperature, we perceive a further consequence of the decomposition, in carbonic acid being given off in abundance. If the wort be kept at its proper heat, the decomposition proceeds with facility ; but if we reduce the temperature, by conducting away any of the caloric, the carbonic acid ceases to be given off in such abundance, and the process is only partial. Again, if the caloric be returned, the fermentation proceeds as before; consequently a proper quantity of caloric is necessary to excite, as well as to keep up, the fermentative process. This being the case, I think we may now reallily account for the practice, which is the basis of the query. When brewers obtain their wort, it is necessary, in order to exhaust all the extractive matter, &c. from the malt, to add a superabundant quantity of water, otherwise a certain small quantity of extract would remain in the malt; for it is a well-known fact to those 'versed in chemical experiments, that water, as well as other liquids, is capable of holding more of some substances in solution, than it requires of those substances to be saturated in a direct way. "Now if any brewer should attempt to excite fermentation in this stare of their wort, disappointment would be a necessary conse. quence; because the large quantity of water.contained
would carry off the caloric to surrounding bodies, on account of its extent of surface. Brewers, therefore, boil their wort, previous to fermentation, in order to expel the superabundant water.
• Answered by Mr. J. Smith, Alton Park. In the operation of brewing, the wort is boiled for the following reasons: First, to extract the essential oil of the hops. Secondly, to coagulate the mucilage extracted from the malt in mashing, which if suffered to remain in solution in the beer, would prevent it from becoming fine: it is, therefore, boiled “ previous to fermentation, this latter process effecting a separation of the mucilage from the beer in the forms of yeast and lees.-Thirdly, to expel, by vaporisation, a portion of the water used in mashing, by which means the strength of the liquor is increased. . .
Mr. J. Baines, Jun. of the Mathematical School, Reading, also sent an ingenious solution.
QUERY 56. ' Answered by Mr. J.B- 1, London. Cuckoos appear in our country early in the spring, and make the shortest stay with us of any birds of passage, as they generally take their leave of this. country during the first week in July.
" The Cuckoo sings her idle song,
nor does she cease
Graham's “ Birds of Scotland.” In migrating the major part of these birds are supposed to go into Africa, since they are observed to visit the Island of Malta twice a year, in their passage backward and forward, as is supposed to that part of the world.
The cuckoo is well known at Aleppo ; it is also com. mon in Sweden, but does not appear there so early
by a month as with us. It has been supposed by somer that these birds do not quit this island during the win, ter, but that they shelter in hollow trees, and lie torpid, unless animated by unusually warm weather, Mr. Pennant gives two instances of their being heard in February; one in 1771, in the end of that month, the other in 1769, on the 4th day ; but after that they were heard no more, being probably chilled into a torpid state. These, however, are solitary instances, and of no weight against the idea of their migration, which is, I believe, a fact generally allowed and believed by naturalists.
Mr. J. Smith, and Mr. J. C. Savage, of Surfleet, express similar opinions.—Mr. Smith observes, « that young cuckoos are seen here much later than the beginning of July."
Mr. Bamford supposes that the cuckoo lies in a torpid state during the winter months, but does not mention any instance of their being found in that condition.
Miss Groves, of Spalding Seminary, (aged 16) sent some very ingenious remarks on this query; as did also Master W. Harrison, of Burton Pidsea, aged 14.
• QUERY 57.
Answered by Mr. J. Smith.. By the expressions in question, we are to understand the male descendants of Abel, and the female posterity of Cain.' The former, from their adherence to the worship and service of the Almighty, are, in the language of scripture, emphatically termed “sons of God;”. while the latter, from the licentiousness of their conduct, and their disregard of religion, are called “daughters of men.” Mr. Bamford is of the same opinion.
Answered by Mr. D. Copsey, London The sons of God in the passage are generally unders stood to signify the angels, though some suppose them to be the offspring of pious Seth *; who began to call
* Genesis iv, 26. .
upon the name of the Lord; or, as others say, to call themselves by the name of the Lord; and who, adhering to the worship of the true God, were named the sons of God, in contradistinction to those who, being idolaters, are said to be the children of the wicked one. The former explanation seems to be most probable, and is supported by various parts of scripture. In Job, chap. i. ver. 6, the sons of God are represented as presenting themselves before the Almighty; and in chap. xxxviii. ver. 7, the sons of God (i. e. the angels) who kept their first estate, are said to have shouted for joy when they beheld the world rise into existence. But in the verse referred to in the query, the fallen angels must be intended. Josephus, in relating this fact, observes, that “ many angels of God intermarried with women, and that the fruit of these unions proved unjust, and de. spisers of all that was good, on account of the confidence they had in their own strength ; for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled the acts of those whom the Grecians called Giants *.”-Antiquities, lib. i. cap. 3.
In this sense it is also mentioned by Mrs. Rowe in the History of Joseph, book i.—Moloch, addressing Mithra in the infernal council, says,
“ The bold example of thy loose amours
Answered by Mr. E. S. Eyres, Liverpool. By the sons of God I suppose is meant such of man. kind as followed the precepts of God, in the same manner as the disciples of Plato or Socrates are often called the sons of Plato or Socrates. And since man, from the time of the fall, has always been in some
* This notion that the fallen angels were in some sense thin fathers of the old giants, was the constant opinion of antiquity,