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dition of those subject to them, but in exacting every thing they can, to repay themselves for the sum which the Porte takes from them; and in carrying away what wealth they are able to amass.
It is difficult to ascertain what sum any given province pays annually to the Porte; but a near conjecture may be made, by adding the haratch (capitation tax) to the sum which the governor stipulates to pay every year.
The Turks, (as far as my experience carried me) show no disposition to molest or offend a traveller. Something contemptuous may at times be observed in their manner. But a great change for the better, in their general deportment, is to be attributed to their never being now exasperated by the attacks of Corsairs or pirates on the coast.
No people living under the same climate, and in the same country, can be so opposite as the Greeks and Turks. There is in the former a cringing manner, and yet a forwardness, disgusting to the gravity and seriousness of the latter. The Turks treat the Armenians, who conduct themselves generally with great propriety and decorum, with much less harshness than they show to the Greeks. Their present condition is certainly not the most favourable point of view for considering the character of the Greeks; and their faults, which are those of their unfortunate situation, would disappear under more favourable circumstances, and a different government. When in office and authority, they are not so devoid of insolence to their countrymen as might be wished. The codja-bashi the Morea are, many of them, tyrannical to the other Greeks. The treatment which the Jews experienced at their hands, in the time of the Greek empire, is that which the Greeks now meet with from the Turks. “ No one,” says Benjamin of Tudela, ir dares go o horseback, but the imperial physician; and the Jews are hated in the town by all the Greeks, without any regard to their good or bad character," p. 30, as cited by Niehbuhr.
Neither hay nor oats are known to the Turks; nor has any nation in the east ever used them for their
"They brought barley also and straw for the
horses," i Kings iv. 28. Homer may be consulted Hliad E. 195; and Juvenal, Sat. VIII. (jumentis ords lassis). Niehbubr says, he saw no oats in Arabia, did not observe tobacco so much cultivated as corn a cotton. The tobacco plantations require much attention; but are very productive. After gathering the leaves, the stalks stand and rot, and, by the salt which
they contain, fructify the earth. The crop from a i tobacco plantation is esteemed worth as much as the
product of the same land sown with corn. An acre of moderately good ground is said to yield about two hundred okes of cotton: an oke is two pounds and three quarters; and the cotton may be worth nearly two piastres an oke.
The olive-tree flourishes in a chalky soil. In summer, a hollow is dug round the tree, to receive water: the fruit is beaten off with long sticks, and not gathered. The olive-presses, which I saw, consist of a circular basin, of twelve feet in diameter; and from the centre rises a tall strong piece of wood, to which a large stone, like a mill-stone, is attached. A horse goes round the basin, and, as he moves, the perpendicular piece of wood receives a rotatory motion; this is communicated to the stone.
Locusts are called by the Greeks xatápa (a curse.) They had laid waste the country about Adramyttium and Pergamus. Proceeding in a straight line, and stopped by no impediment, they devoured every kind of vegetation : all means used to destroy them were fruitless; if some part were killed by fire and smoke, kindled expressly, still, however, multitudes escape. In July, the Archipelago was covered for some distance with swarms, which the wind had driven into the sea. They were larger than grasshoppers; with legs and bodies of a yellow colour: their wings were brown and spotted. The Turks have not learned to eat them; būt with the Arabs, the locust is boiled or roasted, and eaten with salt. Europeans are surprised at this; as the Arabs are, when they hear that we eat crabs, oysters, and lobsters,
The storks, while I was in the Troad, were building their nests on the houses at Bournabasbi. The veneration paid to these birds by the Mahometans is well
nown. The Thessalians (say's Plutarch, de iside et wiride) esteem them because they destroyed serpents. tie noise made by the upper and under parts of their will (“crepitante ciconia rostro,” Ovid) is well compared, by Shaw, to that of a pair of castanets.
On the great roads near Smyrna, which lead to the interior, are to be met frequent caravans of camels : these are preceded by an ass, and round their necks are strings of beads, with a bell. I mention this, because the same ornament is seen on the camels. sculptured at Persepolis. The camel of the northern part of Asiatic Turkey is a stronger animal than that of the south : the latter carries not more than five hundred pounds weight; but the former from eight to nine hundred. Near Moolab I met a caravan laden with iron
The country, about Smyrna, is well cultivated, most of it laid down in cotton and corn land. They plough, as I was told, with a pair of oxen, more than an acre a day, and the manure they use is burnt weed. The whole country was now (April) wearing a beautiful appearance; the anemone, ranunculus, and byacinth, were seen in the fields, and by the road side. Having slept one night in the open air, by a fire which the driver of the caravan kindled with dried horsedung, I arrived the next day at the banks of the Hermas; I crossed it at the ferry, and reached Menomen; whence I sailed to Smyrna in an hour. From Menomen, boats come daily to Smyrna, in the season, laden with water melons. From the seed a liquor is made, which is sold about the streets of Smyrna.
The fields and gardens about Smyrna are planted with almond, olive, fig, and pomegranate trees. The hills round Smyrna are of granite. At a village to the south of it, called Beejaw, is a very fine grove of cypress trees: this tree, so great a favourite with the Turks in their burying-grounds, is there planted on account of its balsamic smell ; its wood was always prized in the east for its durability. The Egyptians made their mummy chests of it; and the Athenians buried those who had fallen in war in coffins of this wood. Between Smyrna and Bourmabat, a village seven miles to the north-east of it, is a very large ceme tery, with remains of antiquity in it, and Greek inscriptions. The Turkish burying grounds are in general extensive, as they never put a body where one has been already deposited, and are also offensive, as they do not put them deep in the ground.
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL AND LITERARY
No. IV. The instrument by which Queen Jane was proclaimed
Queen of Englund, &c. setting forth the reasons of her
claim, and her right to the crown*. LADY Jane Grey was eldest daughter of Henry Lord Grey, Duke of Suffolk, and the Lady Frances, daughter and one of the coheirs of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, by Mary his wife, Queen Dowager to Lewis XII. of France, and youngest daughter of King Henry the Seventh. The aspiring and haughty Duke of Northumberland knowing the claims of Lady Jane to the crown of England, and thinking to exalt his own family by the match, proposed a marriage between her and his fourth son Lord Guildford Dudley, which having accomplished, his thoughts were next directed towards Edward VI., who, through his policy, consented to transfer the right to the crown to his cousin Lady Jane, in defiance to the natural right of his two sisters Mary and Elizabeth. On the death of Edward it was with the greatest reluctance that this unambitious woman, for whom literature had far greater charms than dominion t, consented to assert
* From the first edition in three folio sheets: reprinted in the Harleian Miscellany.
+ The learned Asgham, before he went into Germany, called on
MISCELLANEOUS CORRESPONDENCE. hers claims; but overcome, at last by the entreaties, di rather than the reasons, of her father, her father-in2. law, and above all her husband, she waved all objection, and the following proclamation was issued :
JANE, by the grace of God, Queen of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and of
the Church of England, and also of Ireland, under · Christ, in earth the supreme head. To all our most I loving, faithful, and obedient subjects, and to every of them, greeting. Whereas our most dear cousin, Edward the Sixth, late King of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and in earth the supreme head, under Christ, of the Church of England and Ireland, by his letters patent, signed with his own hand, and sealed with his great seal of England, bear. ing date the twenty-first day of June, in the seventh year of his reign, in the presence of the most part of his nobles, his counsellors, judges, and divers other grave and sage personages, for the profit and surety of the whole realm thereto assenting, and subscribing their names to the same, hath by the same his letters patents recited, that forasmuch as the imperial crown of this realm, by an act made in the thirty-fifth year of the late King, of worthy memory, King Henry the Eighth, our progenitor and great uncle, was, for lack of issue of his body lawfully
begotten, and for lack of issue of the body of our said late cousin King Edward the Sixth, by the same act limited, and appointed to remain to the Lady Mary, his eldest daughter, and to the heirs of her body lawfully begotten; and, for default of such issue, the remainder thereof to the Lady Elizabeth, his second daughter, and to the heirs of her body lawfully begotten, with such conditions as should
Lady Jane at Broadgate, in Leicestershire, to take bis leave, whom he found reading Plato in Greek, with as much delight as some gentlemen would read a merry tale in Boccace, wbilst the whole of the family were hunting in the Park. Being asked by him why she would lose such pastime in the Park ? smiling, she answered, * All their sport is but a shadow to that I find in Plato : alas ! good folk, they never felt what true pleasure meant.”