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Immense are the Roman antiquities dug up about this famous colony: nor has the perpetual turning up the ground exhausted them *.” They chiefly consist of hypocausts or stoves, sudatories or sweating baths, se. pulchres, inscriptions, pavements, coins, and aqueducts or pipes for supplying the city with water, These we shall give a concise account of, in a future part of this work.
“ This then was the state of this city in Roman times: the Foss and Ermine-street entered the city at Stanbow, or the stony arch; there they parted; the Ermine-street went directly up the hill, and so full north through Newport; the Foss, according to its natural direction, ascended it obliquely on the eastern side without the ancient city, and so proceeded to the sea-coasts north-east t.”
About a inile east from the cathedral numerous sepulchral remains have been discovered; the greatest number were found in making the stone quarries. Here appears to have been a considerable burial-ground, and from the fragments of urns, &c. we may conclude it to have been the family cementry of some person of note; perhaps the commandant.
Numerous sepulchres, generally supposed Roman, have been found in the vicinity of the city, but seldom the remains of more than one human being have been found therein.
“ Lindum-colonia | seems to have been the focus where all armies of the Romans, east of Trent, might be concentrated, as occasion served. Ad Pontem an. swered the same purpose west of Trent. Communica. tions with these two stations ran in almost all direc
* Stukely's Itinerarium Curiosum, vol. i. page 91. t. Ibid. page 90.
I'« Towns of this class were occupied by Romans, and mostly by legionary soldiers, who received portions of land in the neighbourhood, as a reward for their services, and as an encouragement to be vigilant in suppressing any attempts of the natives to recover their liberty. Their constitution, their courts of justice, and all their offices, were copied from Rome; and the inhabitants were Roman citizens, and governed by Roman laws.” Vide Macpherson's Annals of Commerce, vol. i. p. 197, and Beauties of England and Wales, vol. ix. p. 593.
tions; some paved and broad for the convenient march of large armies, which were afterwards called by the Saxons, streets, and so continue to be in many parts of England to this day. Others unpaved; these were denominated fosses; a word not confined, as has erroneously been supposed, to the ditch that surrounded their encampments, but signifying more properly, and in a more enlarged sense, any hollow passage *.”
We always in the neighbourhood of a station may trace forts and strong holds of some description, by the termination of names of towns or villages. Burgh, Borough, Burton, &c. are certain indications of such. Near Lindum we find Washingburgh, and Burton, where have been found remains of the Romans, and, according to Dr. Stukeley t, there are likewise some traces of small forts. Besides the above, we find evident remains of a summer camp at Ingoldsby, and antiquities, with the floor of a building of some extent, and supposed to have been the villa of a commander, have also been recently discovered at Scampton t. These we shall endeavour to describe hereafter, and at present proceed in our attempt to ascertain the real situation of the other stations ascribed to Lincolnshire. Bourn, Dec. 24, 1811.
(To be continued.)
ACCOUNT OF THE PENNY-WHITTLE HEDGE, WHICH IS MADE ON ASCENSION-DAY, EVERY YEAR, AT
WHITBY IN YORKSHIRE.
In the fifth year of the reign of Henry II. the Lord of Uglebarnby, then called William de Bruce; the Lord of Smeaton, called Ralph de Percy; with a gentleman and freeholder called Allatson, did, on the 16th of Oc. tober, 1159, appoint to meet for the purpose of hunting,
* Dickinson's Antiquities, &c. in Nottinghamshire, vol. i. Observations on the Map, p. 4.
+ Life of Carausius, vol. ii.
the wild boar in a certain wood or desart place, belonging to the Abbot of Whitby : the name of the place was Eskdale-side; and that of the abbot, Sedman. These young gentlemen being met, with their hounds and boar-staves, in the place before mentioned, and baving found a great wild-boar, the hounds pursued him to the chapel and hermitage of Eskdale-side; in which chapel was a monk of Whitby, who was an hermit. The boar being closely pursued and deadrun, look in at the chapel-door, there laid down, and presently died. The hermit shut the hounds out of the chapel, and kept himself within at his meditations and prayers, the hounds standing at bay without. The gentlemen in the thick of the wood being just behind their game, followed the cry of the hounds, and coming to the hermitage, they called to the hermit, who opened the door and came forth. The boar being now dead, and the hounds having been put from their game, the hunters ran with great fury upon the hermit, and with their staves they beat him so unmercifully that he died a short time after. The noblemen perceiving themselves to be in a perilous situation, in consequence of their barbarous conduct to the hermit, fled to Scarborough for refuge; but the abbot being in great favour with the king, caused them to be apprehended and removed from their sanctuary, and thus they became exposed to the rigour and severity of the law, which was death for death. But the hermit, who was a devout man, being at the point of death, desired the abbot to send for the persons who had wounded him, with which request the abbot complied; and the gentlemen being brought before him, he said unto them, “ I am sure to die of the worinds you gave me;" to which the abbot replied, “ And they shall as surely die for the same.” But tlie hermit said, “ Not so; for I will freely forgive them my death, if they will be content to comply with the penance which I shall en. join on them, for the safeguard of their souls.” The gentlemen seemed willing to acquiesce in any penalty he might wish to have inflicted upon them, provided he would save their lives. Then said the hermit, “ You and your posterity shall hold your lands of the abbot of Whitby, and his successors, in this manner. That upon Ascension-day, you, or some of you, shall come to the wood of the Stray heads, which is in Eskdale-side, the same day at sun-rising, and there shall the abbot's officer blow his horn, to the intent that you may know where to find him; and he shall deliver unto you, William de Bruce, ten stakes, eleven stout stowers, and eleven yethers, to be cut by you, or some of you, with a knife of one penny price; and you, Ralph de Percy, shall take twenty-one of each sort, to be cut in the manner aforesaid ; and you, Allatson, shall take nine of each sort, to be cut as before; these you must take on your backs, and carry to the town of Whitby, and you must be there before nine of the clock, the same day before-mentioned.
“ At the same hour of nine of the clock, if it be full sea, your labour and service shall cease; and if low water, each of you shall set his stakes to the brim, each slake placed one yard from the other; and so yether them on each side with your yethers; and so stake on each side with your stout stowers, that they may stand three tides, without removing by the force thereof. * Each of you shall do, make, and execute, the said service, at that very hour, every year, except it be full sea at that hour; but when it shall so fall out, this service shall cease. You shall faith fully do this, in remembrance that you did most cruelly slay me; and that you may the better call to God for mercy, repent unfeignedly of your sins, and do good works. The officer of Eskdale-side shall blow, Out on you! Out on you! Out on you! for this heinous crime. If you or your successors shall refuse this service, so long as it shall not be full sea, at the hour aforesaid, you or yours shall forfeit your lands to the abbot of Whitby, or to his successors. This I entreat, and earnestly beg, that you may have your lives and goods preserved for this service; and I request of you to promise, by your : parts in heaven, that it shall be done by you and your successors, as it is aforesaid requested ; and I will con. firm it by the faith of an honest man.” Then said the hermit, “ My soul longeth for the Lord: and I as freely forgive these men my death, as Christ forgave
the thieves on the cross. And in the presence of the abbot and the rest, he said moreover these words: “ In manus tuos, Domine, commendo spiritum meum, a vinculis enim mortis redemisti me, Domine veritatis. Amen.”
So he yielded up the ghost the eighth day of December, anno Domini 1159 ; upon whose soul may God have mercy. Amen.
This service still continues to be performed with the prescribed ceremonies, though, not by the proprietors in person,
Pickering, Dec. 18, 1811.
Upper Guildford Street, London, Oct. 8, 1811. The nature of the business in which I am engaged requiring some knowledge of bibliography, that science has, for some time past, engrossed the greater part of my attention, and whilst perusing the works of the different writers on this subject, of which the French, without doubt, form the most numerous class, I have occasionally taken notes of what I conceived to be most curious and interesting ; and should you deem the specimens I send you worthy of insertion in the Enquirer, I have only to hope that they will afford as much information to your readers, as they have given pleasure in their search, to
You humble servant,
Bayle (Pierre) Dictionnaire Historique et Critique, revu par Prosper Jlarchand. 4 vols, in folio, Rotterdam, 1720. Called the third, though really the fourth edition.
This is the dearest and most esteemed edition of Bayle's Dictionary, for which reason many mercenary
booksellers and others, by means of false titles bearing :- the date of 1720, have vended inferior editions for the