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(which is 6 feet. thick of brick and stone intermixed) extends northward beyond the width of one arch, but how much further cannot be traced, the arches being broken in and filled with rubbish to the surface of the ground. Where this second set of arches begins, was à Kole that goes sloping up into the outer wall, and begins at the crown of the arches.
“It seems to have communicated with some place above. By some joints in the work, it appears as though the place with the pillars, or the passages which joined to them, had been built one before the other. On the south was an entrance or outlet, whose floor falls 5 inches, and is continued beyond the jamb. The surface of the floor is 13 feet 6 inches below the pavement of the street, and 17 feet 5 inches below the garden, under which it is situate. A great number of fragments of urns, pateræ, and other earthen vessels, were brought out from the rubbish, hut none remarkable for their ornamenting; also several earthen bottles, which appeared to have no orifice, and terminated in a point. The external walls were built of stone intermixed with brick, &c.
“These are the only hypocausts or sudatories of which any account has been preserved, but it is probable many others have been discovered which, either from ignorance or want of taste, have been destroyed, or suffered again to sink into that obscurity from which chance had half rescued them."
SEPULCHRAL REMAINS. Every thing connected with ancient Rome, however mean and trifling in itself, derives from ihat connection dignity and importance. The man who can contemplate without emotion, an inscription, tile, or even Roman denier, I should accuse of want of taste or feeling. Their sepulchral remains in particular'are worthy our strictest attention; and in Lindum they have met with a better fate than other relics of this people. The pens of a Pownall, a Sympson, and ("* though last not least") a Carter, have been employed in the praise worthy task of rescuing them from oblivion, and transmitting accounts of their discoveries for the edification of posterity.
Under this head the discoveries are nunierous, and
the,"urns, coins, and other memorials therein deposited, have been transplanted to the Minster Library, or else introduced into the private cabinets of distinguished literati. So plentiful, indeed, have these vestiges been, that scarcely a hill has been levelled, or a trench dug in the environs of the city, without some being turned up.”
In the stone quarries, about a mile east from the cathedral, great numbers of bones have been dug up, ever since the ground was first opened for stone, though few have been taken up entire. Here, I conjecture, was the chief burial place of the colony. Out of a dug up in 1736, Mr. Sympson got a fair coin of Adrian, of the second magnitude; the head laureate HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, P. P.; reverse, a figure standing, a palm branch and cornucopiæ, FELICITAS AVG. Š. c. These urns generally contain, besides bones and ashes, a piece of copper money. There are also abundance dug up that have been buried without burning, after the custom ceased, as may be supposed, among the Romans. Some of these have had prodigious strong coffins, as may be judged from the iron cramps and nails six, seven, eight, and nine inches long, which have been found among the bones, with some small remains of wood, not quite consumed after so many ages.
On Friday, May 14, 1731, some labourers digging for stone in this quarry discovered, lying north and south, the head to the north, about 1 or 2 feet below the surface, two ancient sepulchres, composed each of four large stones, set edgeways, for the ends and sides, and covered with a fifth ; about 6 feet long, within the breadth 3 feet, the depth 21 feet; the cover of one of them was in two pieces. The bodies had been inclosed in thick strong wooden coffins, of which nothing remained save a small matter that stuck to the huge iron spikes and cramps, that had bound the planks together, and that was so much decayed, that the sort of wood was not to be distinguished. In the north end lay a very thick scull (the teeth gone), and some pieces of thigh bones, and many iron spikes, full 6 inches long, thick as the little finger, but consumed by rust, and broken at the ends. On the right side of the coffin. towards the head, was a beautiful urn of fine red clay, broken
among the nails and mouldy earth, with a little scroll or festoon round it; it was five inches deep, and might have held a quart. Near a yard south from the foot of the tomb, and at the same depth, was a heap of black strong smelling ashes. Next day they found a similar stone coffin, the cover of one stone, and the in. side of each side stone, hewn smooth, not so long as the other, and in it only a piece of scull and bones. Many bones have been dug up in different parts of the hill, as if thrown in from a field of battle; and in this quarry was found the brass armilla mentioned by Dr. Stukeley, as in the possession of Mr. Pownall,
John Pownall, Esq.* describes an ancient place of sepulture, discovered in an open field, half a mile due east of the east-gate of the ancient Lindum. This was in 1790. It was evidently a sepulchral monument of the Romans, and of some person above the rank of the lower order; but as the urn, which the sarcophagus inclosed, contained nothing but sand, ashes, and burnt bones, the era of interment could not be ascertained. The sarcophagus consisted of a large round stone trough, of rude workmanship, with a cover of the same ; both the stone and its cover had originally been square, but the ravages of time had so worn off the angles, as to give it the appearance of rotundity. Another stone of the same kind was found near it, of a quadrangular shape, evidently used for the same purpose, but without a lid or urn.
This, with many rare fragments of antiquity, were preserved by the Rev. Dr. Gordon, the Precentor of the Cathedral; who, in a letter to Mr. Pownall, dated March 2, 1791, gives an account of several earthen and glass urns, which were discovered in the sa.ne field, some of which were of singular shape. He also de. scribes a room, 20 feet by 16, which was discovered in a quarry, about one hundred yards west from the other; the height could not be ascertained, but the bottom was about 12 feet from the present surface. The floor was. covered with black ashes, and the walls bore evident marks of fire. Two skeletons were found lying on the floor, also a large stone trough, capable of holding a man, but not of sufficient depth for the purpose of a coffin. This was probably a sarcophagus, in which, as Pliny * informs us, that all bodies, previous to uro burial, were accustomed to be burnt. The Doctor thinks the room might have been appropriated for the reception of bodies that were prepared for the funeral ceremonies, Suetonius in Nerone, and some other writers, have described similar places under the name of Libitina: where dead bodies were carried previous to interment. * Erat porro, Romæ porta Libitina per quam cadavera ad Libitinam efferebantur t." Baurn, June 19, 1812.
* Vide Archæologia, Vol. X.
(To be conlinued.)
HENRY VIth's DIRECTIONS
BUILDING KING'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. ANNEXED is a copy of the instructions given by Henry VIth for the building of King's College, Cambridge, which I have transcribed from a manuscript copy of the same; and which I trust will be acceptable to the Readers of the Enquirer.
Many of the expressions are obsolete and unintellia gible to modern readers;- if any of your correspondents would take the trouble of explaining these in a future number, it would be acceptable.
As touching the dimensions of the church of
said colledge, of our Ladie and Saint Nicholas of Cambridge,
* Pliny's Natural History, Lib. II.
+ Lazeico Comme. Reipub. Rom. Vide Beauties of England and Wales, Vol. IX. ; and Jewitt's History of Lincoln, pages 228231, and pages 235-237; also the Archæologia, aud Gough's. Camden, Vol. 11. Edit. 1806..
I have devised and appointed, that the same church shall contain in length 288 fuote of assise, without any iles, and all of the widenesse of fortie foote. And the length of the same church, from the west ende unto the allars at the quire doorė, shall containe 120 foote. And from the provosts stall, unto the greece called Gradus Chori, 90 foote for 36 stals on eiiher side of the same quire, aunswering to 70 fellowes, and ten priests conduits, which must be de prima forma. And from the saide stals unto the east ende of the saide church: 62 foote of assize. Also a reredosse bearing the roodloft, departing the quire and the body of the churche, containing in length fortie foote, and in breadth fourteene foote. The wals of the same church to bee in height ninely foute imbatteled, vauted and chareroofed, sufficiently butteraced, and every butterace fined with finials. And in the east ende of the same church shall be a window of nine dayes, and betwixt every butterace a window of five da es. And betwixt every of the same butteraces in the body of the church, on both sides of the same church, a closet with an alter therein, contayning in length twentie foote, and in bredth tenne foote, vawted and finished under soyle of the ile windows. And the pavement of the church to be entranced foure foote above the ground without. And the beight of the pavement of the quire one foote and an halfe above the pavement of the church. And the height of the pavement of the alter three foote above that. And on the north side of the quire a vestrie, contayning in length fiftie foote, and in bredth twentie-two foote, departed into two houses beneath, and two houses above, which shal containe in height twentie-two foote in all, with an entrie from the quire vauted. And at the west ende of the church a cloyster square, the east pane tayning in length 175 foote, and the west pane as much. The north pane 200 foote, and the south pane as much, of which the deambulatorie thirteene føote wide, and in height twentie foote, to the corbill table, with cleare slories and butteraces with finiales, vauled and embattelled. And the grounde thereof, foure foote lower than the church ground. And in the middle of the west pane of the cloyster, a strong tower square, contayning foure