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this part are, the Canon of the Scriptures—Ancient and modern divisions of the Bible Title Author-Date -Argument and scope of each book.
The third volume, or Part II. of Vol. II. contains an appendix of 258 pages, which includes : I. The Jewish Calendar, with notices of the various festivals, and the state of the weather in the Holy Land. II. A list of the principal Commentators and Biblical critics of eminence; with bibliographical and critical notices extracted from authentic sources. III. On the Hebraisms of the New Testament. IV. A concise account of the Manuscripts of the Old and New Testament. V. A Brief notice of the principal editions of the Hebrew Bible, and the Greek Testament. VI. On the various readings of the Bible, with rules for weighing and applying them. VII. A sketch of the profane History of the East, in illustration of the Scriptures. VIII Tables of weights, measures, and money, mentioned in the Bible. IX. Chronological Tables. A Bibliographical Index and a general lodex of Matters are added.
The embellishments of this valuable work include, Fac-similes of the Codex Argenteus, the Codex Bezæ, the Codex Laudianus 3, the Codex Rescriptus of Matthew's gospel, published by Dr. Barret, and the Codex Ebnerianus; with four maps, viz. of
, Palestine, of Judea, adapted to the gospel history of the journeyings of the Israelites, and of the Travels of the Apostles.
In a work einbracing so great a compass of sacred literature, it is not one of the less difficult labours of the author, to apportion to every distinct subject its appropriate space, and so to regulate the adinission of the respective articles, that while nothing important is excluded, only wbat is useful may obtain a place. In this respect Mr. Horne has acquitted bimself much to our satisfaction; the evidences of judicious selection, present themselves throughout the work, and the reader's confidence in the judgement of the Author, strengthens as he proceeds with its perusal.
We are greatly pleased with the serious spirit which pervades these volumes ; a spirit which, we regret to say, has not always distinguished the labours of Biblical critics. Too many of them have treated the literature of the Scriptures as a subject of speculation, apart from its real utility in assisting the understanding to apprehend the design and import of Revelation, for the purpose
of applying its truths and influence to the heart. We would have the student reminded with urgent frequency, that the knowledge of manuscripts and versions, of various readings, and critical productions, is not an ultimate object ; that, how creditable soever it may be to him as a scholar, to possess a familiar acquaintance with these and similar subjects, his principal business with the Bible is, to become wise unto salvation
To how great advantage, compared with some other writers, does the present Author appear, in addressing to his readers such considerations as the following:
Such then being the utility, excellence, and perfection of the Holy Scriptures, since they are not merely the best guide we can consult, but the only one that can make us wise unto salvation, it becomes the indispensable duty of all carefully and constantly to peruse these sacred oracles, that through them they may become “ perfect, thoroughly furnished to every good work." This indeed is not only
* agreeable to the divine command, † and to the design of the Scriptures, f but is further commended to us by the practice of the church in ancient as well as in modern times, and by the gracious promise made by Him who cannot lie, to all true believers, that “ they shall all be taught of God.” What time is to be appropriated to this purpose, must ever depend upon the circumstances of the individual. It is obvious that some time ought daily to be devoted to this important sturly, and that it should be undertaken with devout simplicity and humility; prosecuted with diligence and attention ; accompanied by prayer for the divine aid and teaching; together with a sincere desire to know and perform the will of God, and, laying aside all prejudice, to follow the Scriptures wherever conviction may lead our minds.'
pp. 3, 4.
The concise view of sacred geography, including the topography of Jerusalem, which is comprised within forty-eight pages, is drawn up with great care, and constitutes one of the best compendiums on the subject, which we remember to have seen. The best sources of information have been explored, and the descriptions given by modern travellers, of the places which they personally visited, are added to the accounts of professed geographers. It cannot be expected that a complete description of the whole of that celebrated country, and of the adjacent places, to which the incidents of the Bibh, relate, should be included in the compass of a few pages; the sketch however wbich is here given, will be found truly interesting, and will in a considerable degree supply the want of larger and more costly means of knowledge, Scarcely any place of importance mentioned in the New Testament, is omitted in the topographical notices, and the reader who carefully consults the accompanying maps as he studies the details of this part of the work, will have made himself a very respectable proficient in the geography of the Holy Land. The following extracts are fair specimens of the valuable information which the Author has compressed within the limits of bis first three chapters.
* 2 Tim. ii. 17. + SEARCH THE SCRIPTURES, John v. 39. I 1 Tim. ii. 4.
Psal. cxix. 24. Acts xvij. ll. 2 Tim. iii. 15. Ps. i. 2.
. The surface of the Holy Land being diversified with mountains and plains, its climate varies in different places, though in general it is more settled than in our western countries. The atmosphere is for the most part mild, and the seasons extremely regular, the summers are perfectly dry, but in some winters the frost and cold are intensely severe, being accompanied with heavy storms of hailstones, rain, and snow, falling in large flakes, which are by the royal Psalmist, with equal fidelity and beauty, compared to wool, as the large hailstones are to masses of ice (Psal. cxlvii. 16, 17.) Intensely hot days are, however, frequently succeeded by intensely cold nights; and to these vicissitudes Jacob refers (Gen. xxxi. 40.) Rain falls but rarely, except in autumn and spring ; but its absence is partly supplied by the very copious dew which falls during the night.* The early or autumnal rains, and the latter or spring rains are absolutely necessary to the support of vegetation, and were consequently objects greatly desired by the Israelites and Jewst. The early rains generally fall about the beginning of November, when they usually ploughed their lands and sowed their corn, and the latter rains fall sometimes towards the middle and sometimes towards the close of April ; that is, a short time before they gathered in their harvest. These rains, however, were always chilly (Ezra x. 9. and Song ii
. 11.), and often preceded by whirlwinds (1 Kings iii. 16, 17.) that raised such quantities of sand as to darken the sky, or, in the words of the sacred historian, to make “ the heavens black with clouds and wind,” (1 Kings xviii. 45.) In the figurative language of the Scripture, these whirlwinds are termed the command and the word of God (Psal. cxlvii. 15, 18.)f: and as they are sometimes fatal to travellers who are overwhelmed in the deserts, the rapidity of their advance is elegantly employed by Solomon to shew the certainty as well as the suddenness of that destruction which will befal the impenitently wicked (Prov. i. 27.) The rains descend in Palestine with great violence ; and as whole villages in the east are constructed only with palm branches, mud, and tiles baked in the sun, (perhaps corres, onding to and explanatory of the untempered mortar noticed in Ezek. xiii. 11.) these 'rains not unfre. quently dissolve the cement, such as it is, and the houses fall to the ground. To these effects our Lord probably alludes in Matt. vii. 25—27. Very small clouds are likewise the forerunners of violent storms and hurricanes in the east as well as in the west : they rise
* “ We were sufficiently instructed by experience what the Psalmist means by the dew of Hermon (Psal. cxxxiii. 3.); our tents being as wet with it as if it had rained all night.” Maundrell's Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 77.
+ The following are a few among the many allusions in the Scripture to the importanoe of the early and latter rains, and the earnesto ness with which they were, desired. Deut. xi. 14. Job xxix. 23. Prov. xvi. 15. Jer. iii. 3. v. 24. Hos. vi. 3. Joel ii. 23. Zech.
The Arabs to this day call them good news or messengers : and in the Koran they are termed the sent of God. c. 77, p. 477 of Sale's Translation, 4to, edit.
like a man's hand, (1 Kings xviii. 44.) until the whole sky becomes black with rain, which descends in torrents. In our Lord's time, this phenomenon seems to have become a certain prognostic of wet weather. *. He said to the people, when ye see the cloud (THN NsQAny) * rise out of the west, straightway ye say, There cometh a shower; AND SO IT is.” (Luke xii. 54.)' Vol. I. pp. 11, 12. “3. GALILEE.-This portion of the Holy Land is very
frequently mentioned in the New Testament : it exceeded Judea in ex. tent, but its limits probably varied at different times. It comprised the country formerly occupied by the tribes of Issachar, Zebulon, Naphtali, and Asher, and part of the tribe of Dan, and is divided by Josephus into Upper and Lower Galilee.
• Upper Galilee abounded in mountains ; and from its vicinity to the Gentiles who inhabited the cities of Tyre and Sidon, it is called Galilee of the Gentiles (Matt. iv. 15.) and the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, (Mark vii. 31.) The principal city in this region was Cæsarea Philippi, anciently called Paneas by the Phænicians, from mount Paneas, at whose base it was situated: it was enlarged and beautified by Philip the Tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, who made it the seat of his government, and changed its name to Cæsarea in honour of the Emperor Tiberius ; it was also called Cæsarea Philippi, to distinguish it from the other cities which bore the name of Cæsarea. The main road to Damascus, Tyre, and Sidon lay through this city.
* Lower Galilee, which lay between the Mediterranean Sea and the lake of Gennesareth, was situated in a rich and fertile plain, and according to Josephus was very populous, containing upwards of two hundred cities and towns. This country was most honoured by our Saviour's presence. Here, his miraculous conception took place (Luke i. 26—38); hither Joseph and Mary returned with him out of Egypt, and here he resided until his baptism by John, (Matt. ii. 22. 23. Luke ii. 39–51. Matt. iii. 13. Luke iii. 21.) Hither he returned after his baptism and temptation, (Luke iv. 14.): and, after his entrance on his public ministry, though he often went into other provinces, yet so frequent were his visits to this country, that he was called a Galilean, (Matt. xxvi. 69.) The population of Galilee being very great, our Lord had many opportunities of doing good; and, being out of the power of the priests at Jerusalem, he seems to have preferred it as his abode. To this province our Lord commanded his apostles to come and converse with him after his resurrection (Matt. xxviii. 7, 16.): and of this country most, if not the whole, of his Apostles were natives, whence they are all styled by the angels men of Galilee, (Acts i. 11.). Vol. I. pp. 33, 34.
The value of this work is much enhanced by the elucidations of numerous passages of the Scriptures, which the Author takes every fair occasion of introducing. The historical details which are comprised in the chapter on the political state of the Jews,
* •The article here is unquestionably demonstrative. See Bishop Middleton's Doctrine of the Greek Article, p. 327.
will not only instruct the reader in the knowledge of the civil government and various fortunes of that remarkable people, but will also enable him to understand and account for the insertion of a variety of particulars in the sacred writings. From the several paragraphs of this kind which we could quote, we select the following account of the powers and functions of the Roman procurators.
• The Jewish kingdom, which the Romans had created in favour of Herod the Great, was of short duration ; expiring on his death, by his division of his territories, and by the dominions of Archelaus, which comprised Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, being reduced to a Roman province, annexed to Syria, and governed by the Roman procurators. These officers not only had the charge of collecting the imperial revenues, but also had the power of life and death in capital causes : and on account of their high dignity, they are sometimes called governors Hy moves. They usually had a council, consisting of their friends and other chief Romans in the province; with whom they conferred on important questions.* During the continuance of the Roman republic, it was very unusual for the governors of provinces to take their wives with them : but under the emperors the contrary custom obtained, and several instances are to be found of it in Tacitus f. This circumstance will account for Pilate's wife being at Jerusalem, (Matt. xxvii. 19.)
• The procurators of Judea resided principally at Cæsarea I, which was reputed to be the metropolis of that country, and occupied the splendid palace which Herod the Great had erected, there. On the great festivals, or when any tumults were apprehended, they repaired to Jerusalem, that by their presence and influence, they might restore order. For this purpose they were accompanied by cohorts ETT Espoo, Acts x. 1.) or bands of soldiers, not legionary cohorts, but distinct companies of military: each of them was about one thousand strong J. Six of these cohorts were constantly garrisoned in Judea ; five at Cæsarea, and one at Jerusalem, part of which was quartered in the tower of Antonia, so as to command the temple, and part in the prætorium or governor's palace.
• These procurators were Romans, sometimes of the equestrian order, and sometimes freedmen of the emperor : Felix (Acts xxiii. 24-26. xxiv. 3. 22—27.) was a freedman of the Emperor Claudius ||, with whom he was in high favour. These governors were sent, not by the se
* Acts xxv. 12. Josephus (Ant. lib. xx. c. iv. 5, 4, and De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. xvi. 1.) mentions instances in which the Roman procurators thus took counsel with their assessors.'
+Tacit. Annal. lib. i. c. 40, 41. lib. ii. c. 54, 55. lib. iii. c. 33. Dr. Lardner cites the particular instances at length. Credibility, part i. book i. ch. vii. 3. (Works, vol. i. p. 145.) $
' † Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xviii. c. iii. s i. lib. xx. c. v. 9 4. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. ix. 2. Tacit. Hist. lib. ii. c. lxxix.' ♡ • Biscoe on the Acts, ch. ix. 1. pp.
330-335.' i Suetonius in Claudio, c. xxviii.'