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Ι. ΠΑΥΛΟΣ δοῦλος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, κλητὸς ἀπόστο 2 λος, ἀφωρισμένος εἰς εὐαγγέλιον Θεοῦ, (ὃ προεπηγγείλατο α 1.15.

"In epistolis interpretandis multò majorem difficultatem reperimus quàm in Evangeliis, quod ex ipsa rei naturà oritur. Qui enim historiam scribit, is scribit, quibus ignota est; adeoque emnia clarè et simpliciter narrare debet; epistola vero est quasi colloquium cum amico absente, qui etiam partes suas agit, et ad cujus quæsita vel cogitata nobis præcognita respondemus; quando ergo epistola est Paulo longior, ita ut plura in ea capita tractentur, fieri vix potest, quin sæpe hæreamus, non percipientes, quomodo scriptor ab uno ad alterum transeat, aut quis loquatur, an is qui scribit, an is cui scribitur. Præter hanc est et alia obscuritatis caussa ipsi Paulo peculiaris, quam et Petrus Apostolus agnoscit 2 Pet. iii. 15, 16. et diversitas interpretationum testatur: nimirum fervidum ejus ingenium multâ eruditione Judaicâ excultum, quo febat ut plura simul ipsi inciderunt, et mente calamum præcurrente, sermo ejus non raro fieret abruptus." (Wets.)

This Epistle was written in opposition to certain Jewish pretensions and prejudices, which led men to neglect the offers of the Gospel. 1. A trust in the works of the Law, especially circumcision, as if thereby already justified and instated in the favour of God. That such was their opinion, is plain from the first three Chapters of this Epistle, and especially from ix. 30-32. x. 2-4. compared with Acts xiii. 38, 39. Phil. iii. 3. 2. A trust in their privilege, as the chosen seed of Abraham, as if thereby constituted God's peculiar people, the objects of his affection, and the heirs of the promises, to the exclusion of the Gentiles from all share in the benefits of the Messiah's kingdom. The ground of their confidence was the account given in Genes. xvii. 7-11. of the covenant made by God with Abraham, and of the institution of circumcision, as the seal of that covenant, a strong foundation in the mind of a Jew for lofty and exclusive claims, which were in after times confirmed by various important circumstances enumerated by St. Paul at ix. 4 & 5. To a bigoted Jew there must have been something shocking and incredible in what was implied in the alleged Divine commission to preach the Gospel to all nations, and in the greater acceptance it met with from VOL. II.

et 13. 2, 9.

the Gentiles, namely, that God had cast off his antient people, and adopted the believing Gentiles in their stead. To combat these prejudices, then, the present Epistle was written, the subject of which the Apostle clearly lays down in i. 16. where he says the Gospel is dúvaμis Oeoû els σωτηρίαν παντὶ τῷ πιστεύοντι, Ιουδαίῳ τε pтov Kai "EXλnvi. An affirmation comprehending two things. 1. The perfect efficacy of the Gospel to salvation, which, by implication, includes the inefficacy of the Law, whether of Moses or of Nature, for that purpose. See Gal. ii. 21. 2. The universal extent of this efficacy for salvation, in the gracious purpose of God to all mankind, to Gentile as well as Jew. In this Epistle, then, the Apostle has applied himself mainly to these four things. 1. He shows the inefficacy of the Law to salvation. 2. The efficacy of the Gospel for that purpose. 3. He destroys the exclusive claim of the Jew to the benefits of this salvation. 4. He establishes the right of the Gentiles to be the people of God, through faith in Jesus Christ, without their coming under any obligation whatever to the Law of Moses. The great Divisions of the Epistle (at least the argumentative part; for Chapters xii.-xvi. treat purely of practical morality) are three; 1. concerning Justification, Ch. i.-vi. 2. Concerning Sanctification, Ch. vi., vii., viii. 3. Concerning the rejection of the Jews, Ch. ix., x., xi. above is abridged and arranged, with some alteration, from Mr. Young's excellent Synopsis of the argument of the Epistle to the Romans. The first 15 verses consist of introductory matter commencing with an inscription (1-7.) of more than usual length, by reason of the insertion of some parenthetical matter from v. 2-6. asserting the promise of the Gospel by the Prophets, the human nature of Christ by his descent from David, and his Divine by the resurrection; also the assertion of his own mission from Christ to preach the Gospel to the Gentiles. In the remaining part of the Introduction, the Apostle, after rejoicing in their faith, expresses his desire to visit them, excuses his delay hitherto, and professes his readiness and purpose to preach the Gospel there, the nature, efficacy, and extent of which he proceeds to state in vv. 16 & 17., which may



b Tit. 1. 2.

Επει διὰ τῶν προφητῶν αὐτοῦ ἐν γραφαῖς ἁγίαις,

et 22. 18. et 26. 4.

et 49. 10. Deut. 18.



Psal. 132. 11.


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περὶ τοῦ

vioù αὐτοῦ, ((τοῦ γενομένου ἐκ σπέρματος Δαβὶδ κατὰ σάρκα, “τοῦ ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ Θεοῦ ἐν δυνάμει, κατὰ πνεῦμα am.7. ἁγιωσύνης, ἁγιωσύνης, ἐξ ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν,)) ̓Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, δι' οὗ ἐλάβομεν χάριν καὶ ἀποστολὴν, εἰς αν ὑπακοὴν πίστεως ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματος . αὐτοῦ ἐν οἷς ἐστε καὶ ὑμεῖς, κλητοὶ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,) 3. πᾶσι τοῖς οὖσιν ἐν ̔Ρώμῃ ἀγαπητοῖς Θεοῦ, κλητοῖς ἀγί

Esa. 4. 2.

et 9. 5.

Jer. 23.

et 33. 14. f

also be regarded as in some measure introductory, as instructing them in the doctrinal part of the Epistle, namely, on Justification and other subjects closely connected therewith.

C. I. 1. doulos 'I. X.] Aoûλos (contracted from déolos) is properly an adjective, signifying bound, and denoted a bond servant, usually for life. Now from the devotedness of such service, it was applied to the service of God. And the term douxos Ocou was applied first to Moses and Joshua, afterwards to the Prophets, and lastly to the Apostles, and even the Ministers of the Gospel in general, as 2 Tim. ii. 24. KANTòs denotes expressly constituted' (as opposed to being selfappointed) namely, by Christ himself, Acts ix. 16. 'ATÓCTOλos denotes properly any one sent with a message, or to act for another. With the Article it denotes those commissioned by Christ, either in person, as the 12 Apostles, or, by some supernatural revelation, as in the case of Barnabas and Paul. The words following αφωρισμένος εἰς εὐαγγέλιον Θεοῦ are exegetical of the preceding, and refer to Paul's being set apart for the work of the Gospel, not only by the Holy Spirit, (Acts xiii. 2.) but also by Christ himself, Gal. i. 15. Els denotes purpose. All these Nominatives depend upon ypaper, which verb is supplied in the most antient Epistles on record, both in Scripture and in the earliest Historians.

2. Ἡ προεπηγγείλατο &c.] which he had already promised' &c. This is meant as an answer to the objection of the Jews and Pagans, that Christianity was a novelty, (since the Gospel was looked forward to from the earliest ages) and to refute the calumny, that he undervalues Moses and the Prophets.

3. Tepi Tou vioù auToû] 'respecting, or with reference to, his Son,' viz. as the subject of those prophecies. Tevoμévov, born; as Gal. iv. 4. and Joh.i. 14. Kara σápka. Notwithstanding what some recent Commentators (and at all times those that deny the Divinity of Christ) pretend, this must have the sense assigned by the antient Fathers and Interpreters, and most modern Commentators, according to his human nature and descent;' as Acts ii. 30. infra ix. 5. év XpLOTOS TO KATтà σápκа, where see the Note. 2 Cor. v. 16. Hebr. v. 11. This interpretation is ably supported by Carpz., Koppe, and Schleus. 4. TOU OPLOVÉVTOS vioû Beov-VEKOV] With this passage the Commentators are somewhat perplexed. See the details in Recens. Synop. One thing is clear, that ορισθέντος ἐν δυνάμει must mean 'powerfully or efficaciously declared,' or demonstrated. Far more difficulty is there in determining the sense of κατὰ πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης, on which Commentators are by no means agreed. Chrys, and the Greek Commentators, together

with many eminent moderns as Luther, De Die Grot., Fessel, Pearson, Whitby, Schoettg., Secke. Weston, Newc., Koppe, and Rosenm., ta πνεῦμα ἅγιον to denote the Holy Spirit. An although they somewhat differ in their views, y they generally explain it to mean 'according the Holy Spirit, and by that Holy Spirit evinced in His supernatural operations after H had raised Jesus from the dead.' This may t the sense; but it so nullifies the antithesis whic plainly subsists, and requires such an unprece dented sense to be assigned to Kara, that I ar inclined to prefer the sense assigned by the Lati Fathers generally, as also Camerar., Paræus Beza, Pisc., Willet, Starck, Heumann, Wolf Schleus., and others, namely, the Divine natur. of Christ, His holy and blessed Spiritual nature This sense is demanded by the antithesis between kara σáρка and кaтà veuμa. And it is confirmed by 1 Pet. iii. 18., where Christ is said to be θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ, ζωοποιηθεὶς δὲ τῷ πνέυματι. where κατὰ σάρκα and κατὰ πνευμα would have been just as good Greek. Compare also 1 Tim. iii. 16. and Heb. ix. 12. So at Rom. ix. 5. Christ is said to be K TATÉPWV KATA aapka, but withal, to be eos evλoyntos els alvas. Indeed, the doctrine of the Greek Article forbids the first mentioned interpretation, while it readily admits the latter. For though πνεῦμα αγιωσύνης must be admitted to be a sort of Hebraism for πνεῦμα ἅγιον, (divine spirit) yet it cannot stand for To Tevμa To ayiov, the Holy Spirit. And, by virtue of the antithesis, as κата σáρкα must mean by his fleshly, i.e. human, nature,' so must κата πνeυua ayiov mean 'according to his (i. e. Jesus's) Spirit of holiness,' i, e. his Holy and Divine nature. Of course, the words must be construed immediately after viòv Oeou.

5. λáßouev] Plur. for singular, as frequently in St. Paul's Epistles. Xápu kal droσтoλýv. The best Commentators recognize in this an Hendiadys for 'the office of Apostleship,' and the grace belonging to it. Els VTак. Tíoтews &c. The sense, which is briefly and obscurely worded, is, 'in order that all nations may be brought to obediently embrace the Christian faith.' See vv. 6. & 17. xvi. 26. Yπèp Tоû òv. avтoû is explained by the best Commentators for his honour and glory;' by others, however, for his sake.' It seems to signify on his behalf,' (i.e. acting in his behalf) and should be referred to droσToλnv.

6. ὑμεῖς] 'ye Romans. Κλητοί I. X., i. e. called or invited to the profession of Christianity, for whom its benefits are destined.

7. πᾶσι-θεοῦ] to all in Rome who are beloved of God; which is a designation of Christians explained by the words following, KλnToîs

Κεφ. Ι.




Dan. 9. 24.
Mich. 7.

κ' χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ Θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ Κυ- 37.24 ρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.




Psal. 132.
? Matt. 1. 1,

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1. 32.

Act. 2. 30.
et 13. 23.

καὶ τὰ



Tim. 2.

30, &c.
Act. 13.

Joh. 10.

Πρῶτον μὲν εὐχαριστῶ τῷ Θεῷ μου διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χρι-Sam. 7. στοῦ ὑπὲρ πάντων ὑμῶν, ὅτι ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν καταγγέλλε ται ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κόσμῳ η μάρτυς γάρ μου ἐστὶν ὁ Θεὸς, λατρεύω ἐν τῷ πνεύματί μου ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ τοῦ υἱοῦ 10 αὐτοῦ, ὡς ἀδιαλείπτως μνείαν ὑμῶν ποιοῦμαι, πάντοτε ἐπὶ τῶν προσευχῶν μου δεόμενος, εἴπως ἤδη ποτὲ εὐοδωθήσομαι Πἐν τῷ θελήματι τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς· * ἐπιποθῶ γὰρ για ἰδεῖν ὑμᾶς, ἵνα τὶ μεταδῶ χάρισμα ὑμῖν πνευματικὸν, εἰς τὸ στηριχθῆναι ὑμᾶς· τοῦτο δέ ἐστι, συμπαρακληθῆναι ἐν τ 13 υμιν διὰ τῆς ἐν ἀλλήλοις πίστεως, ὑμῶν τε καὶ ἐμοῦ. m Οὐ το θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν ἀδελφοὶ, ὅτι πολλάκις προεθέμην. 16 ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, καὶ ἐκωλύθην ἄχρι τοῦ δεῦρο, ἵνα τινὰ καρπὸν σχῶ καὶ ἐν ὑμῖν, καθὼς καὶ ἐν τοῖς λοιποῖς ἔθνεσιν. Τhes. 4.


yist, where xλ. adds something more to the al designation, and shows that they are what Dey are by the calling of God, and by his grace.

ειρήνη] Considering that this is connected από χάρις ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ, it should not be dies, with some, of temporal prosperity ; or at met it must primarily denote peace with God, I see Rom. v. i. and Phil. iv. 7.) and then peace with another.

8. εὐχαριστῶ] put for the more Classical χάριν ειδέναι. See Note on Thess. i. 3. Τῷ Θεῷ see. This is generally interpreted the God what I serve; and it is supposed that thanks, epetitions, are to be offered to God through Cerest. Compare v. 20. Heb. xii. 15. This, however, is taking for granted what ought to be Fred. I still prefer the interpretation I propounded in Recens. Synop. (since adopted by athers) by which ou is supposed to be emphatic, and the sense as follows: I thank Him who has become my God through the mediation of Christ.' Tas, too, is supported by the authority of Chry sost. and Theophyl., who observe that it is said after the manner of the Prophets.

4. μάρτυς γάρ μ. ἐ. ὁ Θεὸς] Α form used with earbest asseveration, corresponding to the Hebr. Λατρεύω. The sense (somewhat debated) seems to be, whom I devotedly worship and serve.' Ἐν τῷ πνεύμ. μου. This may mean, as some explain, o with my [whole] mind and soul.' But I rather agree with Chrys. and Theophyl. that it signifies with my spirit,' i. e. spiritually. So Phil. iii. 3. οἱ πνεύματι τῷ Θεῷ λατρεύοντες.

10, εἴπως ἤδη ὑμᾶς] The sense seems to be this: If by any means I might yet ever be so favoured as to be permitted to visit you.' So Eeum., Kypke, and Koppe, who take ἤδη ποτέ for ὄψε ποτέ, ever at length, and remark, that it is a form denoting great desire of averting evil or Εὐοδοῦσθαι properly signifes cbtaining good. * to be on the right road, and often, as here, both in the Classical and Scriptural writers, to be fortunate in any respect.

11. χάρισμα πνευμ.] Some of the earlier mo

Heb. 1. 5.

e Rom. 12.
1 Cor. 15.


Eph. 3. 8.

Eph. 1. 1.

dern Commentators take this to denote the extra-
the more recent ones understand it solely of
ordinary and miraculous gifts of the Spirit; while
the ordinary teaching by the preaching of the
word, as the great means of spiritual edification.
And this view is not only supported by Chrys.,
Theophyl., Theodoret, and Ecumen., but a-
tors; and it is more agreeable to what follows.
dopted by the most eminent modern Commenta-
It was, we may suppose, the sense in which the
Apostle intended to be understood, though he
probably had the other in his mind.

12. τοῦτο δέ ἐστι] The best Commentators,
as a phrase meant to introduce a softening of
antient and modern, are agreed in regarding this
what might seem arrogant in the preceding asser-
tion. But to take τοῦτο δὲ for μᾶλλον, (as
Koppe does) explains nothing. It should seem
that the phrase may be best rendered thus: 'My
meaning in what I have said is, that I expect to
receive mutual comfort and edification;' for that
seems to be the closest sense of συμπαρακ. In
comfort is meant for the Apostle, the edification
the double meaning included in συμπαρακ., the
for the Roman Church. At ἐν ἀλλήλοις sub.
οὔσης. And ὑμῶν τε καὶ ἐμοῦ are exegetical of
the ἐν αλλήλοις. Ἐν ὑμῖν, inter vos.

13. οὐ θέλω ἀγνοεῖν] An elegant meiosis,
equivalent to I would have you know. So
Athen. 560. οὐδένα δὲ ὑμῶν ἀγνοεῖν, ὅτι &c.
The Apostle gives this assurance, as a reason why
he had shown his anxiety for them by coming to
occurs in Thucyd. iii. 69. and in other writers.
them. "Αχρι τοῦ δεῦρο. Sub. χρόνου. The phrase
Τινὰ καρπὸν for καρπὸν τινὰ is found in very
many MSS., Versions, Fathers, and early Edd.,
and is adopted by almost every Editor from Wets.
to Vat. The sense of καρπόν τινα σχῶ is, that
I may enjoy some fruit, or benefit, i.e. in the
increase of the Gospel, and the edification of its
possessors. Thus in Col. 1. 6. the Gospel is said
καρποφορεῖσθαι. Εν ὑμῖν, ‘among you, or,
viz. of those among whom the Apostle had
by you. Τοῖς λοιποῖς. Not others, but the rest,

Δ 2



$5. 3. 15. 15




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