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he was to see Dr. Lushington, at ninety years of age, journeying from London to Oxford to support his friend -how keenly he felt the absence of any one on whose vote he had counted in the struggle! Stanley's friends carried the day, and this was in fact almost the last attack which was made in Oxford on the Broad Church party.

LETTERS, 1872.


February 12, 1872. I do not intend to publish the lectures on Boswell-perhaps I may some day elaborate them into something more. What I chiefly desired to impress upon people was that Boswell was a greater genius and also a better man than is commonly supposed ; and I do not think that his character has been at all exhausted, or that the right thing has been said either by Carlyle or Lord Macaulay.



March 11, 1872. Jowett was very delightful when here last, and his lecture on Boswell was full of humour and good spirits. The second lecture on Johnson was thought by some to be not so successful. I doubt if he will publish them, as they were really written each the day before its delivery, though containing of course the results of il lungo studio e il grande amore.

When he was here he was almost persuaded to write an · Ethic.' This I believe is the one great work which he could do better than all men. But mens rcfugit, and I almost doubt his ever really going at such a big fence. He staves off the beginning of such a work by alleging that he has first to do

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a comprehensive account of the Platonic philosophy! I don't think that this is needed from him. It is certainly not so much needed as a new exposition of the theory of morals.


February 10, (1872). I am away from Oxford for a day or two, having taken to walking about with two friends of mine among the Surrey hills. Yesterday I had a charming day with T. H. Farrer, one of my oldest friends, about Leith Hill and Wootton. I find great pleasure in going about among such scenes and without a book.

I have just finished the Children's Bible. I have adopted your selection almost entirely, with a slight abridgement ?. You will be glad to hear that this book is finished, but not equally satisfied that Thucydides makes progress, and that the translation will be finished in about two months.


OXFORD, February 19, (1872). I want you to fill up and illustrate your thoughts more. The power of developing an idea is what I have been endeavouring to gain for twenty years past and more, and I have not succeeded, and therefore, like many other preachers, I suggest my own defects for your consideration. Your writing seems to me too abstract, and to turn too much upon the use of certain words, which have a meaning to yourself but not equally to others.

When I turn to the substance of the paper I agree very much. We want to form an idea of a Millennium (not like the Millennium of interpreters of prophecy) which shall represent to us the working out of the will of God upon earth, and the paths which lead thither. To realize this we must take the better mind of man, the highest conceptions which we can form of righteousness and holiness, and the like; and see how far in the past history of the world we can find recognition of them, or tendencies towards them. In some respects this new moral world must be different from the highest morality which we have at present, especially in the religious importance attached to the consequences of actions; and in the positive as well as negative goodness which morality will require, e.g. whether not doing good is not equivalent to doing evil. Neither is it synonymous with care of health, or with sanatory improvement. It should begin (I mean a new system of morality should) by clearing away some figments of necessity, the origin of evil, and the like, which throw one powerless into the hands of the priests.

1 Cf. vol. i. p. 418. 2 This refers to the first draft of the book.

I paid another visit to Shrewsbury' last week, and saw my old acquaintance the Bishop of Manchester. I am trying to get the school removed, and hope that we shall succeed, but people are afraid of the expense. It has the most abominable buildings, yet I am assured that no school is more healthy.

I feel more difficulty about the College than I used to do. All the mechanical part is pretty well in order ; the dinners are good, and the College servants are well in hand. But I feel that men's characters are not easily trained or formed, and I have not so much opportunity of influencing them as I had when I was only a Tutor. I can avoid some of the mistakes of Dr. Arnold, but I can't do what he did. I must go on hoping that I may some day accomplish more ; at present the external measure of success is beyond the real success.


OXFORD, March 16, (1872). I have finished Thucydides-I mean the translation, or rather shall have done so in two days. I was elected chairman of the Board of Studies for the Literae Humaniores Final Exam. I mean to hold this for life.

The Bishop 2 has disallowed our “Versicles' and some other


1 Jowett had recently been elected to represent the University on the governing body of Shrewsbury School. He continued to hold the post till his death,

and indeed his last public speech was made at Shrewsbury.

? i.e. Bishop Jackson, the Visitor of the College.

things on legal grounds :-i. e. on the opinion of Sir Travers Twiss (poor man). We will have them in a particular book of our own. He says they are admirably selected.



April 3, 1872. You have an endless work to do in your own sphere. And you must finish that and not fancy that life is receding from you. I always mean to cherish the illusion, which is not an illusion, that the last years of life are the most valuable and important, and every year I shall try in some way or other to do more than the




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April 3, 1872. ... Did you ever think of extending your operations to the whole of Aristotle's works, making, in short, or editing, a translation of Aristotle with introductions ? I think that this would be worth doing, as it has never yet been done. Some of the works, e.g. the Ethics, Politics, Rhetoric, and Poetics, would be as interesting as Plato, and the Physical Science would also have a great interest. Of the Second Ethics and Second Rhetoric it would only be necessary to give an account, pointing out their bearing on the other.

If you would set on foot such a project I would undertake to help ; and would contribute a translation of the Politics which I have made, and also would make a translation of the Metaphysics, as I am thinking of doing with a view to a new edition of Plato and the volume of introductions which I hope to prefix to it. Tell me whether this project attracts you at all.

I think that I could probably get you some further assistance. Green has translated the greater part of the De Anima. And there is probably some one of the young Scholars here who would be willing to do the Rhetoric or the Poetics.

I suppose that there is no chance of your coming to London

this spring :-if you do, come and see me. I have never had you under the shadow of my roof. I am afraid that the Sellars are very much shaken by the loss of poor Frank. From these troubles we unmarried people are free, but I expect that we lose more than we gain.

I am very sorry about Maurice's death. He was misty and confused, and none of his writings appear to me worth reading. But he was a great man and a disinterested nature, and he always stood by any one who appeared to be oppressed.


April 27, (1872). I was delighted to hear of your promotion, and at your kindness in writing to tell me. I do not know that you have got the 'pleasantest place under Government,' but you have got one of the most interesting and important at this time. And I hope that the Ministry will live long enough to enable you to bring in the Army Bill in the House of Lords.

I suppose that you will have to work hard at first in getting up details. When you know these, and know whom you can trust in the office, I should fancy that you can leave smaller matters to take care of themselves, and fix your attention on the greater ones. Administration is much alike in all offices when you have got up some technical details, and therefore your experience at the Treasury will not be thrown away.

A great deal, I suppose, may be learned in conversation from the permanent officials.

I sometimes think of the Army Reorganization Bill as a great measure of Education. The army is one of the two great public schools of England. This is not a point of view that can be stated prominently. Yet to those who reflect that in the next thirty years we shall probably spend on the two services a sum equal to the National Debt, and as we hope without even engaging in war, it may be a consolation to remember that our military arrangements have improved the national character and the physique of the people.

On his becoming Under Secretary for War in Mr. Gladstone's Government.

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