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merely formal; he could have no interest in what was compulsory. Professor Price put forward his views in a pamphlet 1; and meanwhile the Rector of Lincoln, supported by Professor Sayce and Dr. Appleton, the editor of the Academy, strongly urged the claims of research.

Legislation of some kind was promised in the Queen's speech at the opening of Parliament in 1876, and early in the session Lord Salisbury brought forward a measure in the House of Lords. The main purpose which he had in view was the diminishing of idle Fellowships and the employment of the money thus gained in paying for better instruction in art and science, in providing funds for new Professorships and Lectureships, and erecting new or improving the existing museums, libraries, and apparatus. A Commission of seven persons was to be appointed to hold office till 1880.

Lord Salisbury's views met with a good deal of opposition. The Archbishop of Canterbury strongly defended the system of prize Fellowships, not from any wish to endow research, but in order to make University education cheaper. In the House of Commons Mr. Lowe declared that every farthing transferred from the Colleges to the University would be diverted from the encouragement of learning to the benefit of laziness. It was hundreds of years since the University of Oxford educated anybody, and there is not the slightest chance that any number of years hence it would educate anybody again.' Sir C. Dilke, Mr. Goschen, and Sir W. Harcourt also defended prize Fellowships and doubted the wisdom of endowing research.

The Commission was duly appointed, but the Bill, though read a second time, had to be abandoned. In the following year it was brought forward again, and after

i Oxford Reform, 1875

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some discussion about clerical Fellowships and clerical headships, it was passed.

In these discussions and agitations Jowett of course took a leading part. He had no sympathy with the organized endowment of research, and he was strongly opposed to any measures which were likely to lessen the influence of the Colleges. He could not tolerate the idea of suppressing prize Fellowships in order to endow Professors with £900 a year. “Every Professor,' he said, 'will cost as much per annum as four prize Fellows, and his chair will continue for life, while the Fellowships will lapse in seven years. At the same time he warmly supported, as he had always done, any changes which would render education at Oxford more efficient and cheaper. He wished to make the Colleges more useful in this respect, and to provide good teaching for those who did not belong to a College. But he did not lose sight of other aims; and was as anxious as any one to see new subjects introduced and taught at Oxford. In his evidence given before the Commission, which sat in Oxford in October, 1877, he offered suggestions mainly on the following six heads':

(1) He advocated the expenditure of large sums to provide new Schools and other buildings required for tuition. If the Professors had lecture-rooms in a common building it would bring them together; it would bring the students together; it would enable the Professors to see their pupils without interruption. We see the great advantage of this at the Museum of Physical Science, and I think we feel the great want of it particularly in the Professorships connected with the Literae Humaniores School ?.' Other buildings required were offices for the

See Minutes of Evidence taken by the Commissioners, 1881, p. 152 ff. For Jowett's earlier views on

reform, see vol. i. pp. 183, 191, 379.

2 This idea was always in Jowett's mind. See below, p. 235.

various delegacies; increased accommodation for the Bodleian; a museum of archaeology; a Hall and library for the Non-Collegiate students. Such buildings would of course be very costly, but the expense would be spread over a number of years, and Jowett supported his proposals with the characteristic remark that a good building is always a real advantage, while other improvements are often doubtful.

(2) The existence of the Unattached students, or as they are now called the Non-Collegiate students, was in some measure due to the action of Balliol College in pressing upon the University a request that some of their students might live in lodgings! For this reason,

. and because his sympathies were always with the poorer men, Jowett took the greatest interest in the movement. He wished to bring the Non-Collegiate students together in a Hall, and to provide them with a library and place of meeting—as we have seen-believing that they would be much better for seeing and knowing more of each other. He urged the University to do far more than it had done for the encouragement of their studies, partly by providing more Tutors for them-one Tutor to every twenty-five or thirty men, so that there should be some one standing in the same relation to an Unattached student in which the College Tutor stands to a College undergraduate'-and partly by supplying funds for three or four Scholarships annually, to be held by Unattached students only. "These young men,' he pleaded, are very imperfectly educated; they are very helpless, and instead of requiring less guidance than the other students, they really require more ; and there, I think, is where the University


1 Cf. vol. i. p. 378. Even as early as 1866 Balliol was compelled to petition for leave to have

undergraduates residing out of College while the front quadrangle was being rebuilt.

has hitherto failed in its duty to them.' Jowett also pointed out two difficulties which attended the Unattached system. On the one hand the best men were always being drafted off into a College, and thus not only the whole class were lowered, but the Tutors were discouraged by losing their best pupils ; on the other there was a good deal of jealousy in the University of a system which if highly successful would tend to draw men away from the Colleges. This feeling Jowett did not share. "If we do our duty in the Colleges,' he said, 'we have nothing to fear from the Unattached students, and if we do not they will act as a wholesome stimulus to us.'

(3) To increase the usefulness of the Universities in every way, by establishing new studies, and extending the teaching to other towns, was a matter which Jowett had much at heart. “Oxford may be justly charged,' he said, 'with having failed to encourage new subjects hitherto. It is not here, but at the British Museum, or at the Royal Institution in London, that some new study is begun.' The professions might be brought nearer to the University by establishing Scholarships in the studies preparatory to them. It was a great loss both to Oxford and to the medical profession that there should be almost an entire severance between the two, and an effort should be made to bring them together. Scholarships should also be established to support Professorships in any special subject.

"Wherever we have a Professor,' he said, 'we may lay it down as a principle that he ought to have some pupils. It makes a great difference, say, to the Chinese Professor, whether there are three or four students here whom he is working up in his own subject, or whether there is nobody, and his public functions are confined to giving an occasional public lecture. I think our additions to the Professoriate will lose at least half their usefulness, unless we supplement them by Scholarships in the subjects which are taught by the Professors.

In the extension of the University to large towns Jowett was, of course, deeply interested.

It is a subject,' he said, 'to which I have paid a good deal of attention, and I should like to put my views before the Commission. It seems that there is a considerable movement going on for adult secondary education in the large towns. We see Colleges springing up everywhere-at Leeds, Sheffield, Nottingham, Bristol, and other places--and this is a benefit to those towns in many ways. First, there is the direct benefit of enabling adults to carry on their education. It is also a great advantage to a centre of business to have a number of persons of liberal education residing there; and a great advantage for young men at the Universities to have some connexion with those towns. New positions are provided for Professors and Lecturers which they can combine with study and research at the same time that they are doing a very useful work. If we take no part in this movement it passes out of our hands : the local Colleges and the instruction given in them will assume a different character, and instead of being places of liberal education embracing classical and general literary studies, as well as natural sciences, they will be exclusively confined to the needs of business, perhaps the mining or engineering wants of the locality. But if the Universities would take a little pains about them they might receive a much higher and more liberal character. The prima facie objection is made that the great towns are rich enough to provide University teaching for themselves, and we are asked, Why do you propose to assist them in any way ? Because some pecuniary assistance gives us a right and opportunity of taking part in them, although the kind of assistance which they want is not so much money as superintendence and connexion with the Universities. We are almost all of us engaged in teaching here; they are beginners in that, and may derive valuable assistance from us. Besides this, I dwell upon the fact that we ought not to allow a great movement to slip entirely out of

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