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made of the marks given, and if there was any failure in the public examinations it was quickly noticed and brought before the Tutors? And, as we shall see, he kept up as Master his old custom of inviting men to spend part of the Long Vacation with him in Scotland, and afterwards at West Malvern.
It was Jowett's habit to write down notes of conversations which interested him, or of his own thoughts and reading, a practice which grew upon him, as the circle of his friends became wider and the subjects in which he was interested more numerous.
Had he left nothing else behind him but these notes, he might still claim a place among the remarkable men of his time, so large is the number of the distinguished persons with whom he is brought in contact, so great the variety of subjects with which his mind is engaged, so forcible the language in which he expresses his thoughts, so original, or at least uncommon, the views which he takes.
In the spring of 1871, at Jowett's request, Mr. George Howard (now the Earl of Carlisle) asked Mazzini to meet him at his house in London. Jowett had a sincere admiration for Mazzini-He was an enthusiast, a visionary,' he said, 'and may perhaps have recommended the “moral dagger” in early life. But he was a very noble character, and had a genius far beyond that of ordinary statesmen. Though not a statesman, I think that his
1 Jowett wished to make ‘Col- Term, and the standard of examilections,'as these terminal exami- nation was to be severe. The nations are called, a progressive undergraduates had their rhymes test of work, extending over the on this-a wicked parody of Dies whole course. Each Term was to Irae, which I do not dare to see an additional layer imposed quote! The system was ideal, on the subjects of the preceding but it did not last long.
reputation will increase as time goes on, when that of most statesmen disappears".' At the interview the Master said very little, and after he had gone Mazzini remarked : 'He made me talk all the time, and I have no notion what he thought of it.' He thought a good deal of it, and made careful notes :
‘Mazzini thought that a great mistake was made in not distinguishing the beginnings and ends of periods. People thought the first French Revolution was the beginning of a period, but it was really the end, and was purely negative in its results. It enforced the equal legal rights of men and social equality, but it did nothing to construct society or bind men together. The French had been without a Government ever since. I said there was such a difficulty in governing France on account of the opposing elements of Republicans and Catholics. He denied that the Catholics were strong, and appealed to his own experience at Rome. Any new idea which took the initiative made way for a time; at Rome, for example, his friends said that he was mad to call together an assembly of the country people, who were under the control of the priests. He persisted, and the assembly was elected, and not more than four or five who were opposed to him were chosen. We then spoke of Materialism. He was entirely opposed to it, and had refused to be at the head of a materialistic society; he complained of the Government for putting Germans into professorships. You ought to ascertain the mind of the people by making inquiries of the clergy and others what they believed, and when you have ascertained the national mind you should express it in education. At the same time the motto of the nation should be progress. I asked him what could be done if the teachers thought progress to mean Materialism. He admitted that would occasionally happen, but he regarded Materialism as a passing phase, inseparable from great transitions of opinion. He had always been for God and the people.
'He spoke with great hope of the Sclavonic races : they were not at the end but at the beginning of their period. He said
that they leant to Russia, as Italy leant to France, because they had no better helper. He did not believe that the Poles were extinguished; he thought their poetry the greatest in Europe.'
For the first time for many years Jowett was now at liberty to enjoy a vacation, free from the burden of translating Plato. Three weeks of the summer of 1871 were spent in a tour in Switzerland with the Hon. E. L. Stanley, who gives me the following account of the excursion :
'I was with Jowett in 1871. We left England by Paris, and went to Geneva by rail. Thence we went on up the Valais and up to Zermatt and the Riffel ; we then went up to the Eggischhorn, and thence to Brieg. Jowett walked the whole way
from the Eggischhorn to Brieg.
Next day we went over the Simplon to Baveno; and the day after drove to the Lake of Orta. We then went on to Milan, where Jowett was specially keen to see the Cenacolo of Leonardo. We then went up the Lake of Como and drove up by Madonna di Tirano to a little lake below the Bernina called, if I recollect right, Le Prese. Next day Jowett walked over the Bernina to Pontresina. We then came to Chur, sleeping on the way at the foot of the Via Mala, then to Darmstadt where he wanted to pay the Moriers a visit, and there we went out to a villa where the Princess Alice was staying, who wished to see him.
'I forget exactly how we came home. We were away altogether not more than three weeks, and it was a very pleasant trip.'
From Switzerland Jowett returned to Tummel Bridge - brown with Swiss suns and full of life and good sayings.' Mr. Harrison, who was with him there, writes :
* Robert Browning was in the neighbourhood at the time, staying at Little Milton, up in the hills above Loch Tummel, where he was perpetrating “Hohenstiel Schwangau” at the rate of so many lines a day, neither more nor less. He walked over