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the lenses which bend the vertical lines with their convex sides turned towards each other.
These considerations have led the author to construct a stereoscope which presents flat surfaces perfectly flat. This new stereoscope has two entire lenses instead of two semi-lenses, and the eyes look through the centre of such lenses. The images not being laterally refracted, as in the semi-lenticular stereoscope, their coalescence requires a certain effort of divergence, or to squinting outwards, which a little practice will enable us to perform easily. Persons capable of using this kind of stereoscope will see a picture. whose surface is perfectly flat with all the illusion of relief and distance.
All lenses being more or less subject to the defect of bending straight lines when refracted by all the various points of their surface but the centre, and in a greater degree as those points are nearer the edges, it results that when images are produced in the camera obscura by the various points of the whole aperture, they will be bent in various contrary directions, and a certain confusion must arise injurious to the delicacy and correctness of the whole compound image. This may be proved by the following experiments :-If we take the image of a window by a small aperture placed on the right edge of a lens, say of 3 inches aperture, and another image of the same window, by placing the aperture on the left, taking care to shift the camera so that the two apertures will be exactly on the same line, we shall have two images of the same window apparently identical ; but in placing these two images side by side in the central lensstereoscope above described, first the image of the left side aperture on the right, and that of the right side aperture on the left, secondly the images vice versa, we shall see in the first case a concave window, and in the second a convex window. But in examining the two images in the semi-lenticular stereoscope, we shall see in one case a concave window, and in the other a perfectly flat window, because in the first case the stereoscope will have increased the bending of the vertical lines of the two images, and in the second the stereoscope will have corrected the bending.
This fact naturally suggests the possibility of correcting the defect of the refracting stereoscope ; for if the images of the camera were taken by semi-lenses, the bend resulting from this mode of operating might be corrected by the bend of the stereoscope, care being taken to turn the thin edge of the semi-lenses of the two cameras in the direction which will produce a bending contrary to that of the semilenses of the stereoscope.
Having shown how the lateral proportional distances of any two correspondent points of the two stereoscopic pictures are the indices of their perspective distances, if we were, while looking in the stereoscope, to produce a change in those proportional lateral distances by sliding horizontally in a contrary direction, two pairs of superposed glass photographic pictures, the objects would appear to move, not in the horizontal lateral direction of that change which they naturally have, but in a straight line forward and backward, as if the object was approaching or receding.
But the most curious effect of that motion would be, that the objects would appear increasing in size while they were receding, and diminishing while approaching, which we know is contrary to the rule of perspective. This is another illusion entirely physiological, and the cause of which may be thus explained ; while the object appears moving forward and backward it remains always the same size, but as we expect when it moves forward that it should increase in size, and when it moves backward that it should decrease, and as it does not, we feel that it is diminishing when approaching and increasing when receding
II. “A Memoir upon Caustics." By ARTHUR CAYLEY, Esq.,
F.R.S. Received May 1, 1856.
The principal object of this memoir, which contains little or nothing that can be considered new in principle, is to collect together the principal results relating to caustics in plano, the reflecting or refracting curve being a right line or a circle, and to discuss with more care than appears to have been hitherto bestowed upon the subject, some of the more remarkable cases. The memoir contains in particular researches relating to the caustic by refraction of a circle for parallel rays, the caustic by reflexion of a circle for rays proceeding
from a point, and the caustic by refraction of a circle for rays proceeding from a point; the result in the last case is not worked out, but it is shown how the equation in rectangular coordinates is to be obtained by equating to zero the discriminant of a rational and integral function of the sixth degree. The memoir treats also of the secondary caustic or orthogonal trajectory of the reflected or refracted rays in the general case of a reflecting or refracting circle and rays proceeding from a point; the curve in question, or rather a secondary caustic, is, as is well known, the Oval of Descartes or Cartesian :' the equation is discussed by a method which gives rise to some forms of the curve which appear to have escaped the notice of geometers. By considering the caustic as the evolute of the secondary caustic, it is shown that the caustic in the general case of a reflecting or refracting circle and rays proceeding from a point is a curve of the sixth class only. The concluding part of the memoir treats of the curve which, when the incident rays are parallel, must be taken for the secondary caustic in the place of the Cartesian, which, for the particular case in question, passes off to infinity. In the course of the memoir, the author reproduces a theorem first given, he believes, by himself in the Philosophical Magazine, viz. that there are six different systems of a radiant point and refracting circle which give rise to identically the same caustic. The memoir is divided into sections, each of which is to a considerable extent intelligible by itself, and the subject of each section is for the most part explained by the introductory paragraph or paragraphs.
III. “On the Figure, Dimensions, and Mean Spccific Gravity of
the Earth, as derived from the Ordnance Trigonometrical Survey of Great Britain and Ireland.” Communicated by Lieut-Colonel JAMES, R.E., F.R.S., &c., Superintendent of the Ordnance Survey. Received April 30, 1856.
(Abstract.) The Trigonometrical Survey of the United Kingdom commenced in the year 1784, under the immediate auspices of the Royal Society; the first base was traced by General Roy on the 16th of April of that year, on Hounslow Heath, in presence of Sir Joseph Banks, then President of the Society, and some of its most distinguished Fellows.
The principal object which the Government had then in view, was the connexion of the Observatories of Paris and Greenwich by means of a triangulation, for the purpose of determining the difference of longitude between the two observatories.
A detailed account of the operations then carried on is given in the first volume of the Trigonometrical Survey,' which is a revised account of that which was first published in the Philosophical Transactions' for 1785 and three following years.
At the time when these operations were in progress, the Survey of several counties in the south-east of England, including Kent, Sussex, Surrey, and Hampshire, was also in progress, under the direction of the Master-General of the Ordnance, for the purpose of making military maps of the most important parts of the kingdom in a military point of view; and it was then decided to make the triangulation which extended from Hounslow to Dover the basis of a triangulation for these surveys.
It is extremely to be regretted that a more enlarged view of the subject had not then been taken, and a proper geometrical projection made for the map of the whole kingdom. As it is, the south-eastern counties were first drawn and published in reference to the meridian of Greenwich, then Devonshire in reference to the meridian of Butterton in that county, and thirdly the northern counties, in reference to the meridian of Delamere in Cheshire ; but there is a large intermediate
of which are made of various sizes to accommodate them to the convergence of the meridian.
In 1799 the Royal Society gave further proof of the interest it took in the progress of the Survey, by lending to the Ordnance its great 3-foot Theodolite, made by Ramsden, for the purpose of expediting the work of the Survey ; and although this instrument has been in almost constant use for the last sixty-seven years, during which time it has been placed on the highest church towers and the loftiest mountains in the kingdom, from the Shetlands to the Scilly Islands, it is at this day in perfect working order, and probably one of the very best instruments that was ever made.
The great Trigonometrical operations of the Survey have been
cárried on under so many officers, from the time of their commencement under General Roy down to the present time, that it would be quite impossible, in this short notice, to mention more than the names of several Superintendents who have succeeded General Roy, viz. Colonel Williams, Major-General Mudge, Major-General Colby, and Colonel Hall; but in justice to the highly meritorious body of noncommissioned officers of the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners, it should be stated, that whilst in the early part of the Survey the most important and delicate observations were entrusted solely to the commissioned officers, these duties have of late years been performed by the non-commissioned officers with the greatest skill and accuracy.
The computations connected with the corrections of the observed angles, to make the whole triangulation as nearly as possible perfectly consistent, have been most voluminous, and have been made under the direction of Lieut.-Colonel Yolland, Captain Cameron, and Captain Alexander R. Clarke ; but Col. James gladly avails himself of this opportunity to acknowledge the great and important assistance and advice which, both as regards the instruments and the calculations, have at all times been received from the Astronomer Royal.
The triangulation, by the methods which will be explained, is now made consistent in every part, so that any side of any triangle being taken as a base, the same distance will be reproduced when it is computed through any portion or the whole series of triangles ; and when the five measured bases relied on are incorporated in this triangulation, the greatest difference between their measured and computed lengths is not as much as 3 inches, and yet some of the bases are upwards of 400 miles apart.
Several bases of from five to seven miles long have been measured, but those upon which the chief reliance has been placed are the Lough Foyle and Salisbury Plain bases which were measured with General Colby's compensation bars. The difference between the measured and computed length of the one base from the cther through the triangulation is 0.4178 ft., or about 5 inches.
This difference has been divided in proportion to the square root of the lengths of the measured bases, by which the mean base which has been used in the triangulation has been obtained; there is therefore a difference of + or -0.2 ft., or 2 inches between the measured and computed length of these bases from the mean base.