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Experimental Researches on the conductive Powers of various Sub
stances, with the application of the Results to the Problem of
Terrestrial Temperature. By William Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S. page 535 On the Perihelia and Nodes of the Planets. By Edward J. Cooper, Esq., F.R.S. (Second Communication.) .
543 On the Development of Carcinus Mænas. By Spence Bate, Esq.,F.L.S. 544 On the Electro-dynamic Qualities of Metals. By Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S.
546 On the Electric Conductivity of Commercial Copper of various kinds. By Professor W. Thomson, F.R.S.
. . 550 On the Thermal Effects of Fluids in Motion. By Professor W. Thomson, F.R.S., and J. P. Joule, Esq., F.R.S.
. 556 On the Thermal Effects of Longitudinal Compression of Solids. By
J. P. Joule, Esq., F.R.S.; and on the Alterations of Temperature accompanying Changes of Pressure in Fluids. By Professor W. Thomson, F.R.S. .
564 On the Phenomenon of Relief of the Image formed on the Ground
Glass of the Camera Obscura. By A. Claudet, Esq., F.R.S. . . 569 Supplementary Researches on the Partition of Numbers. By Arthur Cayley, Esq., F.R.S. .
573 On the Anatomy and Physiology of the Spongiadæ. By J. S. Bowerbank, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c.
. 573 Researches on the Intimate Structure of the Brain; Human and Comparative. By J. Lockhart Clarke, Esq., F.R.S.
577 On the Early Stages of Inflammation. By Joseph Lister, Esq. . . 581 On the Fructification of certain Sphæriaceous Fungi. By Frederick Currey, Esq.
588 On the Anatomy of Tridacna. By John Denis Macdonald, Esq. 589 Experimental Researches on the Spinal Cord as a leader for Sensi
bility and Voluntary Movement. By E. Brown-Séquard, M.D. . 591 On the Resemblance of the Effects of Section of the Sympathetic
Nerve in the Neck and those of Section of a lateral half of the
594 On the Influence of Efforts of Inspiration on the Movements of the Heart. By E. Brown-Séquard, M.D.
. 596 On the Influence of Oxygen on the vital properties of the Spinal
Cord, Nerves, and Muscles. By E. Brown-Séquard, M.D. 598 On the Power possessed by Motor and Sensitive Nerves of retaining
their vital properties longer than Muscles, when deprived of Blood. By E. Brown-Séquard, M.D. .
600 Ocular Spectres, Structures and Functions, Mutual Exponents. By James Jago, A.B. Cantab., M.B. Oxon.
603 On Hourly Observations of the Magnetic
Declination, made by Captain Maguire, R.N., and the Officers of H.M. Ship • Plover,' in 1852, 1853 and 1854, at Point Barrow. By Major-Gen. Edward Sabine, R.A., D.C.L., Treas. and V.P. R.S. .
Page 394, line 6 from bottom, dele half.
4, for 2,000,000 read 5200 X 106; and for 8,200,000 read
21000 x 106. 398,
10, for 10 tons read 53600 x 106 tons; and for 42 tons read
874000 x 106 tons.
54, 125, 128, 128,
8, for property read quality.
for 41(0)+420) read \.(0)-4,(0).
2, for 268° read 238o.
5, tan read tan-
read (sin ()-21-1
for M.D. read Esq.
488, 488, 573,
THE ROYAL SOCIETY.
January 10, 1856.
ADMIRAL BEECHEY, V.P., in the Chair.
In consequence of there not being a sufficient number of Fellows present, the Ballot for the question of the readmission of Mr. Sievier was postponed to the next Meeting.
The following communications were read :I. “On Insolinic Acid.” By AugustUS W. Hormann, Ph.D.,
F.R.S. &c. Received December 20, 1855.
(Abstract.) In attempting to purify cuminic acid by boiling with chromic acid, I observed that this acid experienced, on the part of this reagent, a progressive alteration. By twenty-four hours' ebullition, cuminic acid is completely converted into an acid insoluble in alcohol
and ether, for which I propose the provisional name of insolinic acid; purified by the ordinary processes, this body furnished on analysis the following relations :
C, H,04; but the analysis of the salts demonstrates that this formula must be doubled, insolinic acid being a bibasic acid. I have examined the following salts : Insolinic acid ....
C18 (H. Ag2) 08
C18 (H. Cu) 0g
Ca (He Bag) ,
(at 133° C.) C18 (HR Ca) Og
C18 (H, K, 08
C18 (H, K)
C18 (H. K Na) 0.
When considered by itself, insolinic acid has but slight claims on the attention of chemists; but when viewed in connexion with other groups of bodies, it acquires increased interest. Some years since, Gerhardt pointed out that to the homologous series of monobasic fatty acids Cng Hng 04, the lowest terms of which are formic and acetic acids, there runs parallel a homologous series of bibasic acids, Cng Hng-,0g, the simplest member of which is oxalic acid. These two series of acids are connected by the closest ties, and very conclusive experiments have demonstrated that the members of the former may be easily converted into those of the latter ; such is the case of the transformation of butyric into succinic acid, effected by M. Dessaignes under the influence of oxidizing agents.
The following table exhibits these two series of acids arranged according to their carbon :Formic acid
C, H, 04
Ca Hg 04
C, H, 04
CA H, 08
C, H, Og
C, H 08
C20 H180g The existence and the mode of formation of insolinic acid prove that to the series of monobasic aromatic acids, Cn. Hn2-90, the lowest known term of which is benzoic acid, there corresponds likewise a series of bibasic acids, Cn, Hn2-8-20. = Cng Hng-100g. Of this series few members are at present known, but the group of aromatic acids is itself very imperfect and limited. The two series comprise at present the following terms :Benzoic acid
C24 H, 08
C18 H, 08
C20 H100g If we take the carbon as the standard of comparison, it is evident that the bibasic insolinic acid corresponds to the monobasic acid, which stands between toluylic and cuminic acid. In addition to this unknown acid, toluylic acid ouly is represented in the series of bíbasic acids. There are, in fact, two bodies which may be regarded as representatives of toluylic acid, namely, phthalic and terephthalic acids. Benzoic and cuminic acid are not yet represented.