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Experimental Researches on the conductive Powers of various Sub

stances, with the application of the Results to the Problem of

Terrestrial Temperature. By William Hopkins, M.A., F.R.S. page 535 On the Perihelia and Nodes of the Planets. By Edward J. Cooper, Esq., F.R.S. (Second Communication.) .

543 On the Development of Carcinus Mænas. By Spence Bate, Esq.,F.L.S. 544 On the Electro-dynamic Qualities of Metals. By Prof. W. Thomson, F.R.S.

546 On the Electric Conductivity of Commercial Copper of various kinds. By Professor W. Thomson, F.R.S.

. . 550 On the Thermal Effects of Fluids in Motion. By Professor W. Thomson, F.R.S., and J. P. Joule, Esq., F.R.S.

. 556 On the Thermal Effects of Longitudinal Compression of Solids. By

J. P. Joule, Esq., F.R.S.; and on the Alterations of Temperature accompanying Changes of Pressure in Fluids. By Professor W. Thomson, F.R.S. .

564 On the Phenomenon of Relief of the Image formed on the Ground

Glass of the Camera Obscura. By A. Claudet, Esq., F.R.S. . . 569 Supplementary Researches on the Partition of Numbers. By Arthur Cayley, Esq., F.R.S. .

573 On the Anatomy and Physiology of the Spongiadæ. By J. S. Bowerbank, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. &c.

. 573 Researches on the Intimate Structure of the Brain; Human and Comparative. By J. Lockhart Clarke, Esq., F.R.S.

577 On the Early Stages of Inflammation. By Joseph Lister, Esq. . . 581 On the Fructification of certain Sphæriaceous Fungi. By Frederick Currey, Esq.

588 On the Anatomy of Tridacna. By John Denis Macdonald, Esq. 589 Experimental Researches on the Spinal Cord as a leader for Sensi

bility and Voluntary Movement. By E. Brown-Séquard, M.D. . 591 On the Resemblance of the Effects of Section of the Sympathetic

Nerve in the Neck and those of Section of a lateral half of the
Spinal Cord. By E. Brown-Séquard, M.D..

594 On the Influence of Efforts of Inspiration on the Movements of the Heart. By E. Brown-Séquard, M.D.

. 596 On the Influence of Oxygen on the vital properties of the Spinal

Cord, Nerves, and Muscles. By E. Brown-Séquard, M.D. 598 On the Power possessed by Motor and Sensitive Nerves of retaining

their vital properties longer than Muscles, when deprived of Blood. By E. Brown-Séquard, M.D. .

600 Ocular Spectres, Structures and Functions, Mutual Exponents. By James Jago, A.B. Cantab., M.B. Oxon.

603 On Hourly Observations of the Magnetic

Declination, made by Captain Maguire, R.N., and the Officers of H.M. Ship • Plover,' in 1852, 1853 and 1854, at Point Barrow. By Major-Gen. Edward Sabine, R.A., D.C.L., Treas. and V.P. R.S. .



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Vol. VII.

Page 394, line 6 from bottom, dele half.
398, 4, for 2,000,000 read 5200 x 106; and for 8,200,000 read

21000 X 106.
398, 10, for 10 tons read 53600 X 106 tons; and for 42 tons read

874000 x 106 tons.

Vol. VIII.

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8, for property read quality.
8, for a given result read given a result.
12, for that read steel.
11, for sin 0 read cos 0.
3 from bottom, for 02-(£) read 02 (8).

for 41(0)+42(0) read 4(0)-42(0).
10, for no read or without.
11 from bottom, dele Hence.
8 and 7 from bottom, for at the rate of one turn in 8

wave lengths read at a certain rate.
13, for the part read the narrow part.

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12 from bottom, for June 15 read June 18.

for M.D. read Esq.
11, for P(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 read P(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)q.




January 10, 1856.

ADMIRAL BEECHEY, V.P., in the Chair.

In consequence of there not being a sufficient number of Fellows present, the Ballot for the question of the readmission of Mr. Sievier was postponed to the next Meeting.

The following communications were read :

I. “On Insolinic Acid.” By AUGUSTUS W. Hormann, Ph.D.,

F.R.S. &c. Received December 20, 1855.

(Abstract.) In attempting to purify cuminic acid by boiling with chromic acid, I observed that this acid experienced, on the part of this reagent, a progressive alteration. By twenty-four hours' ebullition, cuminic acid is completely converted into an acid insoluble in alcohol



and ether, for which I propose the provisional name of insolinic acid; purified by the ordinary processes, this body furnished on analysis the following relations :

C, H,04;
but the analysis of the salts demonstrates that this formula must be
doubled, insolinic acid being a bibasic acid.
I have examined the following salts :-

Insolinic acid
Silver salt

C18 (H. Ag2) 08
Copper salt.

C18 (H. Cu).
Barium salt

C18 (H. Ba,) Og
Calcium salt (at 100° C.) C18 (Ha Ca.)
(at 133° C.) .... C18 (Ha Ca.)

Potassium salt (neutral)

C18 (H, K,) 08 (acid). .

C18 (H, K)

08 Potassium-sodium salt

C18 (H. K Na) Og

C1: Hg




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When considered by itself, insolinic acid has but slight claims on the attention of chemists; but when viewed in connexion with other groups of bodies, it acquires increased interest. Some years since, Gerhardt pointed out that to the homologous series of monobasic fatty acids Cng Hng On, the lowest terms of which are formic and acetic acids, there runs parallel a homologous series of bibasic acids, Cng Hng-20s, the simplest member of which is oxalic acid. These two series of acids are connected by the closest ties, and very conclusive experiments have demonstrated that the members of the former may be easily converted into those of the latter ; such is the case of the transformation of butyric into succinic acid, effected by M. Dessaignes under the influence of oxidizing agents.

The following table exhibits these two series of acids arranged
according to their carbon :-
Formic acid

C2 H, 04
Acetic acid. .....

CA H, 04
Propionic acid

Co Hg 04
Butyric acid

C, H, 04
Valeric acid

Caproic acid



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Enanthylic acid

Caprylic acid...

Pelargonic acid

Rutic acid ...

C20 H2004
Oxalic acid...

C, H, Og

Succinic acid ..

C, H. Og
Pyrotartaric acid C10Hg
Adipic acid

Pimelic acid

Suberic acid


Sebacic acid

The existence and the mode of formation of insolinic acid

prove that to the series of monobasic aromatic acids, Cn. Hn2-80, the lowest known term of which is benzoic acid, there corresponds likewise a series of bibasic acids, Cn, Hng-8-20. = Cng H-100g. Of this series few members are at present known, but the group

of aromatic acids is itself very imperfect and limited. The two series comprise at present the following terms :Benzoic acid

C14H 04
Toluylic acid...

C16H, 04

Cuminic acid ..


CH, 0
Terephthalic acid ...
Phthalic acid..
Insolinic acid ....

CH, og
. ?

C2 H100g If we take the carbon as the standard of comparison, it is evident that the bibasic insolinic acid corresponds to the monobasic acid, which stands between toluylic and cuminic acid. In addition to this unknown acid, toluylic acid only is represented in the series of bibasic acids. There are, in fact, two bodies which may be regarded as representatives of toluylic acid, namely, phthalic and terephthalic acids. Benzoic and cuminic acid are not yet represented.

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