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Q. How many degrees of Comparison are there?
A. Three, which are distinguished by the denominations of

Q. What is the Positive ?
A. The Positive is the adjective in its natural signification,

without any regard to the increasing or diminilhing of it ;

as grand, great ; petit, small; fort, strong ; &c. Q. What is the Comparative? A. The Comparative increases or diminishes the signification

of the Positive; and is formed, in French, by putting either plus (more) or moins (less) before the Adjective; as plus grand or moins grand, greater or less great ; plus petit,

or moins petit, small or less small. Q. What is the Superlative? A. The Superlative expresses the signification of the Adjec

tive in the highest or lowest degree of all; and is formed, in French, by putting le plus, la plus, les plus (the most) or le moins, la moins, les moins, (the leaft) before the Adjective, according to the Gender and Number of the Substantive it relates to; as in these Examples : il est le plus grand, mais le moins fort de tous, he is the tallest, but the weakest of all; votre Tante est la plus riche, mais la moins libérale de vos Parens, your Aunt is the richest,

but the least liberal of your relations ; &c. Q. Do all French Adjectives form their Degrees of Comparison

in the same manner ? A. No; for the three following Adjectives have a Compa

rative and Superlative of their own; viz.



PositiVE. COMPARATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. Bon, good; meilleur, better; le meilleur, the best; Mauvais, bad; pire, worse; le pire, the worst; Petit, little ; moindre, less ; le moindre, the least.

Yet, the two last may also be compared with plus and le plus, prefixed to their positive; for we frequently say plus mauvais, plus petit, &c. But never plus bon.


Of Pronouns in general.


HAT are Pronouns?

A. They are Words of a peculiar use in Speech; some serving as fubstitutes for Substantives, and others

performing the office of Adjectives. Q. How many sorts of Pronouns are there? A. There are six forts, which are distinguished by the fole

lowing names; viz.
'The Personal,

Les Personnels.
The Conjunctive, Les Conjonctifs.
The Poffeflive,

Les Pollelifs.
The Abfolute,

Les Absolus.
The Demonstrative, Les Demonstratifs
The Relative,

Les Relatifs.
Q. What are the Personal Pronouns?
A. They are those which directly denote Perfons, and are

used instead of their names; as He I, tu thou, il he, elle fhe, for the Singular; Nous we, vous you or ye, ils or elles they, for the Plural. See the Conjugations of

Verbs, which are annexed to CHAP. vi. p. 116. Q. What are the Conjunctive Pronouns ? A. The Conjunctive Pronouns are also used instead of the

names of Persons and Things, but differ from the Perfonal Pronouns in this respect, that they are either governed by Verbs, or set after prepositive Particles; as moi or me me; toi or te thee ; le, , elle, or lui, se, soi, which may be rendered by him, her, or it, in the Singular; Nous us; vous you or ye; eux, elles, les, leur or se, for the

Plural; according to the sense they imply. Q. What are the PoDelive Pronouns. A. They are Pronouns which indicate the Poffeffion of the

Obje& before which they are placed; as mon livre, my book; ta plume, thy pen i fon chapeau, his hat, &c.



As thele Pronouns perform the office of Adjectives, they must likewise agree, in French, with the Gender and

Number of the Substantive which they precede. Q. What are the Abfolute Pronouns? A. They are Pronouns which also indicate poffession, but in

an absolute sense, that is to say, without having a Substantive annexed to them; though they relate to one already expressed before. These are le mien or la mienne, mine; le tien or la tienne, thine ; le notre or la nôtre, ours; &c. They likewise agree in French, with the Gender and

Number of the Substantive they relate to. Q. Are these two laf forts always placed among Pronouns? A. They are so by the generality of Grammarians, because

they serve as substitutes for Conjunctive Pronouns; for instance, when I say, c'est mon livre, it is my book; c'est le mien, it is mine; these Phrases imply, ce livre eft

à moi, this book belongs to me; &c. Q. What are the Demonstrative Pronouns ? A They are pronouns which serve to point out any Person

or object whatever; as ce Monsieur, this or that Gentleman; cet Enfant, this or that Child; cette maison, this

or that house; ces Arbres,, these or those trees; &c. Q. Are the Pronouns ce and cet used indifferently in French ? A. No; for ce is only used before a Substantive of the Mar

culine Gender, beginning with a Consonant or h afpirated; and cet before a Substantive Masculine, beginning with a Vowel or h mute.

What are the Relative Pronouns ? A. They are Pronouns that generally have a relation to a

preceding Substantive, which is called, by Grammarians, the Antecedent; as le Maitre qui enseigne, the Master who teaches; le livre que j'ai acheté, the book which I have bought; &c. But when they are used for asking Questions, they commonly begin a Sentence; as Qui vous apelloit? Who called you? Que dites-vous ? What are you saying? &c. These fix classes of Pronouns are distinctly exhibited in the two following pages; viz.


a a


Of the fix. different Classes of Pronouns described in this:

Chapter, together with their respective Significations,

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Mon m. ma f. My.

Mès Co. My
Ton m. ta f.

Son m. fa f: His, ber, itsi | Ses co. His or Her..
Notre c.

Votre co

Vos c.

Leur c.

Leurs, co Their.

Nos c.

** This Pronous (you, as well as vous) is, through custom, which gives law to Grammar, used either for the Plurad or Singular Number,







Le mien m.

Les miens m.

Mine. La mienne f.

Les miennes f. Le tien m.

Les tiens m.

Thine, La tienne f

Les tiennes f. Le sien m.

Les siens m.

his or hers. La fienne f.

Les fiennes f. Le nôtre m, la nôtre f. Ours. Les nôtres c. Le vôtre m. la vôtre f. Yours. | Les vôtres c.

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Qui c.
Who or that. Quic,

Who or that, Que c..): Whom or that ... Que c. Whom or that. Quel m.quellef. IV hat*,which I Quelsm.quellesf.what, which, Lequel m. laquelle f. Which. Lesquelsm.lesquellesf.Which. Dontc, whose, of whom, &c. Dont c. whose, of whom, &c,

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• Besides the signification prefixed to this Pronoun, it is also rendered by ce qui, ce que, que and quoi; according to the sense ut implies.


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