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Q. How many degrees of Comparison are there?
A. Three, which are distinguished by the denominations of
A. The Pofitive is the adjective in its natural fignification,
A. The Comparative increases or diminishes the fignification of the Pofitive; and is formed, in French, by putting either plus (more) or moins (lefs) before the Adjective; as plus grand or moins grand, greater or lefs great; plus petit, or moins petit, small or less small.
Q. What is the Superlative?
A. The Superlative expreffes the fignification of the Adjective in the higheft or lowest degree of all; and is formed, in French, by putting le plus, la plus, les plus (the most) or le moins, la moins, les moins, (the leaft) before the Adjective, according to the Gender and Number of the Substantive it relates to; as in thefe Examples: il eft le plus grand, mais le moins fort de tous, he is the tallest, but the weakest of all; votre Tante eft la plus riche, mais la moins libérale de vos Parens, your Aunt is the richest, but the leaft liberal of your relations; &c.
Q. Do all French Adjectives form their Degrees of Comparison
in the fame manner?
A. No; for the three following Adjectives have a Comparative and Superlative of their own; viz.
le meilleur, the best;
Yet, the two laft may also be compared with plus and
Of Pronouns in general.
Q. WHAT are Pronouns ?
A. They are Words of a peculiar ufe in Speech; fome ferving as fubftitutes for Subftantives, and others performing the office of Adjectives.
Q. How many forts of Pronouns are there?
A. There are fix forts, which are distinguished by the fol lowing names; viz.
A. They are those which directly denote Perfons, and are
A. The Conjunctive Pronouns are alfo ufed inftead of the names of Perfons and Things, but differ from the Perfonal Pronouns in this refpect, that they are either governed by Verbs, or set after prepofitive Particles; as moi or me me; toi or te thee; le, la, elle, or lui, fe, foi, which may be rendered by him, her, or it, in the Singular; Nous us; vous you or ye; eux, elles, les, leur or fe, for the Plural; according to the fenfe they imply.
Q. What are the Poffeffive Pronouns.
A. They are Pronouns which indicate the Poffeffion of the Object before which they are placed; as mon livre, my book; ta plume, thy pen; fon chapeau, his hat, &c.
As thefe Pronouns perform the office of Adjectives, they
A. They are Pronouns which also indicate poffeffion, but in an abfolute sense, that is to fay, without having a Subftantive annexed to them; though they relate to one already expreffed before. These are le mien or la mienne, mine; le tien or la tienne, thine; le nôtre or la nôtre, ours; &c. They likewife agree in French, with the Gender and Number of the Substantive they relate to. Q. Are these two laft forts always placed among Pronouns? A. They are fo by the generality of Grammarians, because they serve as fubftitutes for Conjunctive Pronouns; for inftance, when I fay, c'est mon livre, it is my book; c'eft le mien, it is mine; thefe Phrases imply, ce livre eft à moi, this book belongs to me; &c. What are the Demonftrative Pronouns?
A They are pronouns which ferve to point out any Perfon or object whatever; as ce Monfieur, this or that Gentleman; cet Enfant, this or that Child; cette maison, this or that house; ces Arbres, these or those trees; &c. Are the Pronouns ce and cet ufed indifferently in French? A. No; for ce is only ufed before a Subftantive of the Mafculine Gender, beginning with a Confonant or b afpirated; and cet before a Subftantive Masculine, beginning with a Vowel or mute.
Q. What are the Relative Pronouns ?
A. They are Pronouns that generally have a relation to a preceding Subftantive, which is called, by Grammarians, the Antecedent; as le Maître qui enfeigne, the Master who teaches; le livre que j'ai acheté, the book which I have bought; &c. But when they are used for asking Questions, they commonly begin a Sentence; as Qui vous apelloit? Who called you? Que dites-vous? What are you faying? &c. Thefe fix claffes of Pronouns are diftinctly exhibited in the two following pages; viz.
Of the fix different Claffes of Pronouns described in this Chapter, together with their respective Significations.
A COMPACT DISPLAY
Moi or me,
Mon m. maf.
His, ber, its. Ses c..
*You or Yen
You or Ye..
His or Her..
This Pronous (you, as well as vous) is, through cuftom, which gives law to Grammar, used either for the Plural or Singular Number,