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might be established there in some future period, and thay then it would be proper that those instruments thould pay the stamp-duty; and accordingly the Enumeration of these Ecclefiaftical Instruments was continued in the stainp-ad; and this is said to have excited in the minds of the Americans a new apprehension of a design of this kind in the government of Greal-Britain. I say, Mr. Printer, a new apprehension of this kind, because they had more than once been alarmed with an apprehension of this danger before, from the great zeal shown upon this subject by some of the most eminent English bishops in the late reign, amongst whom I believe I may reckon the two famous bishops of London, Dr. Gibson and Dr. Sherlock, and most certainly the late Dr. Şecker, archbishop of Canterbury, who (though he had been bred amongst the Protestant Diffenters, and in the former part of his life had embraced the profession of Phyfick in one or other of its branches,) was remarkable for an uncommon degree of zeal for Episcopacy, and a most ardent desire to extend its influ. ence to America.

But this alarm, which had been excited amongst the Americans by the Enumeration of the Instruments used by Ecclesiastical courts in the stamp-act, was greatly increased by a pamphlet written in the province of either New-Jersey or New-York, in the year 1766, or 1767, în favour of the measure of establishing a Protestant Bishop in America. This pamphlet was generally supposed to be written by Dr. Chandler, a clergyman of the church of England, who was minister of a church-of-England congregation at Elizabeth-town, in New Jersey, about fifteen miles from New-York. It is said to have been ably and plaufibly written, and to have made a strong imprellion both on the members of the church of England in NorthAmerica, and particularly in those two provinces of News


Jersey and New York, and on several men of power and influence in Great-Britain, so as to excite in them a strong desire of causing the measure of establishing a bishop in America to be adopted. At least this was supposed by the Americans to be the effect of it. For, foon after the publication of this pamphlet, the diffenters from the church of England in New-York, being much alarmed by an opinion of this kind, set on foot a periodical paper to answer the doctrines and suggestions contained in it, which they called the American big, and in which all the acts of cruelty and oppression that had formerly been committed by bishops of all sorts, protestants as well as papists, and particularly those done by archbishop Laud, bishop Neal, and bishop Wren, in King Charles the First's time, (which occafioned the great emigration of the Puritans ļo America, about the year 1630, by which the NewEngland colonies were first effectually peopled,) were , brought afresh to light, and painted in the strongest colours. This American IVhig came-out either once a week or once a fortnight, (I forget which,) during all the year 1767, and revived all the ancient apprehensions and animofities against bishops, which for a long time before had' (with but a few interruptions) gradually subsided. This paper (as we might naturally fuppose it would do) produced a paper in answer to it, which also was published periodically, as well as the American Whig, and at the same intervals of time one from the other, that is, once a week, or once a fortnight. It bore a tremendous title, and was written, as far as I remember, in a style of great haughtiness and insolence. It was entitled, A Scourge for the American Whig; by Timothy Tickle, Esq. and 10 this Scourge a reply was written, in defence of the American Whig, and entitled, A Kick for the Whipper ; by Sir Isaac Foot; which was likewise a periodical paper, that cameout once a week or once a fortnight. All these three papers were printed at New-York, in the years 1767 and 3768, and had the ill effect of setting the minds of the people of America in general, but particularly of the people in that city and province, of the two opposite sects of Episcopalians and Presbyterians, very much upon the fret against each other, so as to destroy all Christian love and affection in thein towards each other. And it was, probably, in consequence of the ferinent caused by these papers, and of the apprehenion of having a bilhop estàblished in America, which bad occafioned the writing them, that the House of Representatives of the province of the Massachusetts-Bay inforted the above-recited paragraph in their letter to Mr. De Berdt, their agent, defiring him to use his utmost esforts to prevent so dangerous au eliablishment.


But, if the publication of Dr. Chandler's pamphlet 125 sufficient to alarm the Americans with the apprehension of having a bishop established amongst them, how much more would they be alarmed (if they were again subjecư to the Crown) at the declaration contained in the sermon of the Archbihop of York *, that such a measure was become indispensably necessary ? Such a declaration from such a person (who has been many years preceptor to the heirapparent of the Crown, and has since been promoted to the {econd station of dignity in the church, as a mark of his Majesty's approbation of his cond:et and principles) would be considered by them as an authentick, publick, notification that a design of this kind was deliberately resolved-on in the cabinet, and would of itself, if every thing else was fettied to their satisfaction, be almost fufficient to drive them into a new rebellion. The pallage in which his Grace makes this declaration concerning the establishment of bishops in America, is as follows:

* Dr. William Markham, in a Sermon preached before the Society for propagating the Gospel, on the 21st day of February, 1777.

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* We may now perhaps discover a ray of brightness. " But for the continuance and increase of it we must rely

on the wisdom of our governours, in confidence that neceflity will at last provide those remedies which fore

fight did not : that the dependance of the colonies may “ be no longer nominal. And for our fpiritual interests, “ we hope the reasoning which was fo just in the case of “ Canada, “ that, if you allowed their religion, you must " allow a maintenance for their clergy,”” will be thought,

at least, cqually strong when it pleads for our own " church; that those who are disposed to worship God “ in peace and charity, may be thought entitled to a “ regular and decent fupport for their minifters; that " they may not continue to want the important office of “ Confirmation, without the benefit of which even a Toleration is not compleat; and that those who have a call 10 the ministry, may not be obliged to feek Ordination

at an expense which is very grievous, and with the “ hazard of a long voyave, which has bcen already fatal “ to many of them. We have, furely, a right to expect “ that the only Established church should not, against all “ example, remain in a state of oppreffion, and that, “ whatever encouragements may be afforded, they should “ rather be for the profefling it than against it.

This paffage, I presume, cannot possibly be understood in

any other fenfe ilan as a declaration that, in the first place, the Governments of the American colonies must be new-modelled, and made less popular, and more dependant on the Crown, than they now are; and likewise that a powerful standing-army must be kept in them, to secure their future obedience, or to the end that their dependance may be no longer nominal; and 2dly, that tythes, or some other tax, ought to be imposed on the laity in America for the support of the church-of-England


Clergy, in the same manner as has been done in Canada for the maintenance of the Romish clergy; and 3dly, that one or more Protestant Bishops ought to be established in America, who should be constantly resident there, to Ordain clergymen, and administer the office of Confirmation. Now either of these measures, taken separately, would have been sufficient to excite the Colonists to rebellion, if they had been in perfect peace with Britain before they had been undertaken. It is therefore necessary to give the Americans the fullest parliamentary security that ihey never will be at: tempted; and more particularly the last measure, of settling a bishop amongst them, because that is a measure that has been mentioned by many other persons of weight and influence in England before the Archbishop of York, and has given the Americans great uneasiness.


F. M.

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