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might be established there in fome future period, and that then it would be proper that thofe inftruments fhould pay the ftamp-duty; and accordingly the Enumeration of thefe Ecclefiaftical Inftruments was continued in the stamp-act; and this is faid to have excited in the minds of the Americans a new apprehenfion of a defign of this kind in the government of Great-Britain. I fay, Mr. Printer, a new apprehenfion of this kind, becaufe they had more than once been alarmed with an apprehenfion of this danger before, from the great zeal fhown upon this subject by fome of the most eminent English bishops in the late reign, amongst whom I believe I may reckon the two famous bishops of London, Dr. Gibson and Dr. Sherlock, and most certainly the late Dr. Secker, archbishop of Canterbury, who (though he had been bred amongst the Proteftant Diffenters, and in the former part of his life had embraced the profeffion of Phyfick in one or other of its branches,) was remarkable for an uncommon degree of zeal for Episcopacy, and a most ardent defire to extend its influence to America.


But this alarm, which had been excited amongst the Americans by the Enumeration of the Inftruments used by Ecclefiaftical courts in the ftamp-act, was greatly increased by a pamphlet written in the province of either New-Jersey or New-York, in the year 1766, or 1767, in favour of the measure of establishing a Proteftant Bishop in America. This pamphlet was generally fuppofed to be written by Dr. Chandler, a clergyman of the church of England, who was minifter of a church-of-England congregation at Elizabeth-town, in New-Jersey, about fifteen miles from New-York. It is faid to have been ably and plaufibly written, and to have made a ftrong impression both on the members of the church of England in NorthAmerica, and particularly in those two provinces of New


Jerfey and New-York, and on feveral men of power and influence in Great-Britain, fo as to excite in them a ftrong defire of caufing the measure of establishing a bishop in America to be adopted. At least this was fuppofed by the Americans to be the effect of it. For, foon after the publication of this pamphlet, the diffenters from the church of England in New-York, being much alarmed by an opinion of this kind, fet on foot a periodical paper to answer the doctrines and fuggeftions contained in it, which they called the American Whig, and in which all the acts of cruelty and oppreffion that had formerly been committed by bifhops of all forts, proteftants as well as papifts, and particularly those done by archbishop Laud, bishop Neal, and bishop Wren, in King Charles the First's time, (which occafioned the great emigration of the Puritans to America, about the year 1630, by which the NewEngland colonies were firft effectually peopled,) were brought afresh to light, and painted in the strongest colours. This American Whig came-out either once a week or once a fortnight, (I forget which,) during all the year 1767, and revived all the ancient apprehenfions and animofities against bishops, which for a long time before had (with but a few interruptions) gradually fubfided. This paper (as we might naturally fuppofe it would do) produced a paper in answer to it, which alfo was published periodically, as well as the American Whig, and at the fame intervals of time one from the other, that is, once a week, or once a fortnight. It bore a tremendous title, and was written, as far as I remember, in a ftyle of great haughtiness and infolence. It was entitled, A Scourge for the American Whig; by Timothy Tickle, Esq. and to this Scourge a reply was written, in defence of the American Whig, and entitled, A Kick for the Whipper; by Sir Isaac Foot; which was likewife a periodical paper, that cameout once a week or once a fortnight. All these three papers

papers were printed at New-York, in the years 1767 and 3768, and had the ill effect of fetting the minds of the people of America in general, but particularly of the people in that city and province, of the two oppofite fects of Epifcopalians and Prefbyterians, very much upon the fret against each other, fo as to destroy all Chriftian love and affection in them towards each other. And it was, probably, in confequence of the ferment caufed by thefe papers, and of the apprehension of having a bishop established in America, which had occafioned the writing them, that the Houfe of Reprefentatives of the province of the Maffachusetts-Bay inferted the above-recited paragraph in their letter to Mr. De Berdt, their agent, defiring him to use his utmost efforts to prevent fo dangerous au efiablishment.

But, if the publication of Dr. Chandler's pamphlet was sufficient to alarm the Americans with the apprehenfion of having a bishop established amongst them, how much more would they be alarmed (if they were again fubjec to the Crown) at the declaration contained in the fermon of the Archbishop of York *, that such a measure was become indifpenfably neceffary? Such a declaration from fuch a perfon (who has been many years preceptor to the heirapparent of the Crown, and has fince been promoted to the fecond station of dignity in the church, as a mark of his Majesty's approbation of his cond&t and principles) would be confidered by them as an authentick, publick, notification that a defign of this kind was deliberately refolved-op in the cabinet, and would of itfelf, if every thing elfe was fettied to their fatisfaction, be almoft fufficient to drive them into a new rebellion. The paffage in which his Grace makes this declaration concerning the eftablishment of bifhops in America, is as follows:

* Dr. William Markham, in a Sermon preached before the Society for propagating the Gospel, on the 21st day of February, 1777. " We



"We may now perhaps discover a ray of brightnefs. "But for the continuance and increase of it we must rely on the wisdom of our governours, in confidence that "neceffity will at laft provide thofe remedies which forefight did not that the dependance of the colonies may "be no longer nominal. And for our fpiritual interests, "we hope the reafoning which was fo juft in the cafe of "Canada, "that, if you allowed their religion, you must "allow a maintenance for their clergy,' "" will be thought, at leaft, equally ftrong when it pleads for our own "church; that thofe who are difpofed to worship God "in peace and charity, may be thought entitled to a "regular and decent fupport for their minifters; that "they may not continue to want the important office of "Confirmation, without the benefit of which even a Tole "ration is not compleat; and that thofe who have a call "to the miniftry, may not be obliged to feek Ordination "at an expenfe which is very grievous, and with the "hazard of a long voyage, which has been already fatal "to many of them. We have, furely, a right to expect "that the only Eftablished church fhould not, against all "example, remain in a ftate of oppreffion, and that, "whatever encouragements may be afforded, they should "rather be for the profeffing it than against it."



This paffage, I prefume, cannot poffibly be understood in other fenfe than as a declaration that, in the first place, the Governments of the American colonies muft be new-modelled, and made lefs popular, and more dependant on the Crown, than they now are; and likewife that a powerful ftanding-army must be kept in them, to fecure their future obedience, or to the end that their dependance may be no longer nominal; and 2dly, that tythes, or fome other tax, ought to be impofed on the laity in America for the fupport of the church-of-England


Clergy, in the fame manner as has been done in Canada for the maintenance of the Romish clergy; and 3dly, that one or more Protestant Bishops ought to be established in America, who fhould be conftantly refident there, to Ordain clergymen, and administer the office of Confirmation. Now either of these measures, taken feparately, would have been fufficient to excite the Colonists to rebellion, if they had been in perfect peace with Britain before they had been undertaken. It is therefore neceffary to give the Americans the fullest parliamentary security that they never will be attempted; and more particularly the last measure, of fettling a bishop amongst them, because that is a measure that has been mentioned by many other perfons of weight and influ ence in England before the Archbishop of York, and has given the Americans great uneafinefs.


F. M.

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