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of Préobragenski, being continually harraffed by the enemy, it became neceffary to halt with all the forces near the Pruth, to obtain water and reft. A confiderable number of Wallachians were present, who kept themselves in the center of the baggage for fafety, and contributed only to increase the embarraffment and confufion; as did also the Circaffians or Ukranian Coffacks. The Turks at this time had collected their whole army, with the addition of fome Swedish and Polish troops, as well as Coffacks, from Bender: whereupon the Swedish generals Sparre and Poniatowski enquired of the Vifir Mahomet-Pacha, how he intended to proceed? and being anfwered, that he proposed to attack the flying enemy, they intreated him to alter his defign; advifing him only to harafs the Ruffians on all fides, and to ftop all the channels of retreat, by which he might make prifoners, at difcretion, an exhaufted and starving army. The Vifir replied, that he faw no caufe for fuch dilatory proceedings; and that as the Ruffians were few in number, they might be eafily vanquished: the generals obferved, however, that though few, they were regular troops; and that the Turks might not withstand their fire.
The Vifir, enraged at this oppofition, sharply rejected their advice; and immediately affembled the janiffaries, and all the infantry, amounting to near one hundred thousand men, togegether with the cavalry, confifting of one hundred and twenty thoufand; befides the Tartars; and with this formidable army, he furiously fell upon the Ruffians, three hours before fun-rife. The attack was made in this manner; the front of the first rank of infantry confifted of but three or four hundred men, but the depth of this column extended near a league, without any order; nevertheless they advanced within thirty toifes, and the fire continued until evening. This angle fell upon the divifion of General Allart; and the cavalry, difperfed like grasshoppers, attacked us on every fide; but without approaching near. However the Turkish infantry, though in diforder, fought bravely, and being numerous, had the attack been made in front, and in other quarters, our danger would have been great; for our troops confifted of no more than 31,554 infantry, and 6692 regular cavalry; of which the greatest part was difmounted. But being attacked only in a fingle quarter, we were able to fupport it by fresh reinforcements. Befide, eight pieces of cannon and fome field pieces were planted and briskly fired against the enemy, loaded with double cartridges; which joined to the fire of the mufquetry, made a terrible havock in the angle, where the men were fo clofely compreffed, that the moft indifferent gunner, could not fail of execution: and the Turks themselves afterwards confeffed that about 7000 of their troops were killed in this action. Thus by divine goodness,
the enemy were repulfed, and had our fituation allowed us to purfue them, we should have obtained a complete victory. The 10th in the morning, the Vifir gave orders for renewing the attack; but the janiffaries, intimidated by the fire of the preceding day, refufed obedience; and therefore a brifk cannonade, only, took place.'
Whilst things were in this fituation his Majefty, we are told, fent an officer to the Vifir, reminding him of the overtures of peace which had been before made, through the mediation of England and Holland, and by the commiffion of Caftrist; and informed him, that if the fame difpofition ftill fubfifted, he might manifeft it on the prefent occafion. The enemy's cannonade, however, not only ftill continued, but increased; and it being impoffible either to retreat or continue in the fame fituation, having neither provifions or forage, it became, we are told,neceffary either to conquer or die.' No answer having been given to the propofal of peace, a mefienger was fent to demand the Vifir's immediate determination; but this being alfo ineffectual, the feveral regiments were ordered to march out and form themfelves, which being done, and having advanced a little toward the enemy, the Turks fent a request that the troops might halt, for that they accepted the propofal of peace. And in confequence thereof, a fufpenfion of arms and a treaty of peace took place, with no other conceffion from the Czar than that of restoring Afoph, which he had formerly takerr from the Turks.
We are told likewife, that after the treaty had been concluded, Charles XII arrived from Bender, and reproached the Vifir for having made peace with the Ruffians in his abfence; alleging that the Sultan had begun the war only in his behalf: the Vifir replied, that he had been commanded to make war for the interefts of the PORTE, which he had followed on that occafion. Charles appears, however, to have been defirous of breaking the treaty, and requested the Vifir to give him the command of the Turkish troops, engaging to fight and conquer the Ruffian army to this the Vifir anfwered, We have fought them already; if you chufe to engage them, you may do it with your own forces; for us, we will not violate the peace already concluded.' After fome fharp altercation, Charles withdrew, and went to the Chan of the Crimea; after which the two armies separated.
This rafh adventure against the Turks, is here faid to have been occafioned principally from a defire of fatisfying the Hofpodar of Moldavia, who profefled great zeal for Chriftianity, and promifed his Majefty the affiftance, not only of his own fubjects, but also that of the troops of Servia and other countries; and engaged to furnish the Ruffians with fufficient pro
vifions. Nevertheless all his promifes and intreaties which feemed to proceed from a true Chriftian zeal, were like the words of Judas; for he betrayed all the fecrets entrusted with him, to the Turks, and laid fnares for our deftruction. But divine juftice may be truly faid to have wrought a miracle on this occafion, by delivering us from the ruin which would have been otherwife inevitable, and into which we had not been seduced, but from a fincere defire for the deliverance and profperity of thofe Chriftians. By an effect of the fame divine juftice, all thefe traitors came to an unhappy end.'
We fhall difmifs this journal with obferving, that it makes no mention of the important part which, according to other hiftorians, the Emprefs Catherine acted in terminating the campaign of the Pruth; in which fhe, and the ladies of her court, had accompanied the Czar.
Memoires de Mathematique de Phyfique, &c.-Mathematical and Phyfical Memoirs prefented to the Royal Academy of Sciences, and read at their Aflemblies, &c. Vol. VI. 4to. Paris. 1774.
ESIDE the memoirs written by the members of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, which are annually published by that learned body, fuch other papers as have been prefented to them by their correfpondents, and have been judged worthy of publication, but which could not regularly be admitted into their collection, have at different times been felected and published, under the prefent title, as an Appendix to their Memoirs, and in the fame form. In giving an account of the volume before us, which is the fixth in the feries, we fhall adopt the method which we have long followed with regard to the Memoirs of the Academy: arranging the different papers under their proper claffes, and felecting fuch articles for more particular confideration, as appear to be most curious and interesting.
Memoir 1. Discoveries relating to Marine Ether, produced by means of Zinc. By M. le Baron de Bormes.
Notwithstanding the facility with which ather has been proeured, by a combination of inflammable fpirits with the vitriolic and nitrous acids, and even with the acid of vinegar, the difcovery of which laft procefs was, we believe, made by the Count de Lauraguais; the method of producing a fimilar ætherial fluid, by means of the marine acid, has been attended with confiderable difficulties. Thefe fubfifted till the Marquis de Courtanvaux not long ago fucceeded in making a marine æther, by employing for this purpofe the moaking pirit of Libavius; in which the marine acid is obtained, in a highly concentrated itate, by
being distilled from corrofive fublimate, from which it is expelled by means of tin.
The Author of the prefent memoir feems greatly to have improved upon his predeceffor, by employing zinc as a medium to concentrate the marine acid, which in its common or simple ftate, however highly concentrated, appears incapable of anfwering the prefent purpose: though M. Beaumé, in his differtation on Æther, has affirmed that he had procured a marine æther, but in a very fmall quantity, by its means. Our Author's process is attended with fome curious phenomena, and is preferable to that abovementioned, as the produce of ather is faid to be more abundant, and as it is obtained with much lefs trouble. An abridgment of his procefs cannot fail of being acceptable to the curious.
He takes twelve pounds of the common fpirit of fea falt, and adds to it, by degrees, as much of the flowers of zinc as it will entirely diffolve. He filters the folution, and puts it into a glafs retort which he places in a fand bath. With a moderate heat he draws off all the phlegm, which rifes firft, as the zinc obftinately retains the acid. The intention of this preliminary operation is merely to concentrate, in the moft perfect manner, the marine acid.
In confequence of this diftillation, the folution appears of a deep golden colour, is tranfparent, and is reduced to about a fourth of its former bulk. It is now fuffered to cool, when it becomes thick, and appears of a fatty confiftence. Six pounds of pure and highly rectified spirit of wine are now to be added to it by degrees, and the whole fuffered to remain in digeftion, in the fand bath, during eight days, in a degree of heat nearly equal to that which is produced by the admixture, or till the matter in the retort is diffolved.
The liquor is to be once more filtered, and put into a retort perfectly dry, to which a large receiver is to be adapted, but without luting the junctures. The fire is to be gradually increafed till the liquor boils. The phlegm will firit pafs over, in a quantity equal to half that of the inflammable spirit employed. Stria will now appear in the neck of the retort, and an agreeable smell will be perceived. The phlegm is now to be thrown away, and the receiver accurately luted.
The fame degree of heat being continued, an aromatifed fpirit of wine will come over. When this has all paffed, the matter in the retort will have the appearance of melted wax. The æther is now formed, and begins to come into the receiver. The fire is to be kept up to the fame height, till it has all paffed; at which time the matter in the retort will appear a dry mafs. The fire is now to be pushed to the greateft degree, when this fubftance will yield a light oil, which fwims on the æther, and resembles
resembles the finest effence of citron. It furpaffes, the Author affirms, the moft aromatic effences both in fragrance and fubtlety; and he believes it to be the true effential oil of wine, depurated as much as poffible. The fire is now fuffered to go out, and the æther with the aromatic spirit are to be separated from the oil, by means of a tunnel.
To render the æther perfectly pure, it is to be rectified by diftilling it from the aromatic fpirit, with the gentle heat of a lamp. The aromatic fpirit being then returned back on the refiduum left in the retort, more æther and oil will be procured. The fame procefs may be repeated, feveral times, after each rectification, and additional quantities both of æther and effential oil may be thus obtained. If the entire procefs has been properly conducted, in every refpect, we are told that about two pounds of æther may be procured, and four ounces of the light fragrant oil above defcribed.
A very curious and fingular phenomenon attends this process, and which, as the Author obferves, tient prefque du prodige. The dry mass, it seems, or caput mortuum, which is left in the retort after the diftillation of the æther and aromatic oil, has the power of concentrating fresh parcels of marine acid, ad infinitum; or ⚫ will serve eternally, if the expreffion may be allowed, for the fame purpose.' Accordingly, there is never any occafion to use fresh flowers of zinc in future proceffes for the production of marine æther. For this purpofe it is only neceffary to diffolve the old caput mortuum in fpirit of falt; to which rectified spirit is to be afterwards added, and the process to be conducted in the manner above related.
Memoir II. On the different Methods of combining Mercury intimately with Iron, and of rendering the former foluble in Water, c. with fome Reflections on the Effects of thefe Preparations in different Difeafes. By M. Navier.
The difficulty, or perhaps rather the impoffibility, of amalgamating mercury with iron, in their metallic forms, is well known to chemifts. In the prefent memoir the Author describes the various proceffes, by means of which he has fucceeded in his attempts to unite these two metals with each other, when in a state of solution, in the most intimate manner, and in the form of a falt refembling fedative falt, or in that of a mercurio-martial precipitate. Out of the feveral proceffes here related we fhall felect the ninth, the fubftance of which is as follows:
Having made ftrong folutions of iron and of mercury feparately in diftilled vinegar, the Author put equal quantities of each into a matrafs, which he placed in balneo maria. As foon as the liquor became very hot, there began to be formed on its furface, and within it, an extremely light, fine, white sub