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the yearly value of forty fhillings, enjoys the right of voting for representatives, there are three hundred thousand American freeholders, poffeffing fimilar qualifications, who have not altogether a fingle fuffrage for a fingle reprefentative.
After denying the existence of reprefentation, our Author very confiftently affirms, that the parliament is collectively the representative of the British empire;' and as a fecond fundamental pofition maintains, that the Americans are reprefented therein. Had he indeed proved an assertion fo contrary to truth and common sense, it might have been necessary to revive the laws against witchcraft. But on examination, his proofs do not appear the refult of any fupernatural aid indeed they hardly discover the affiftance of reason: though he has alleged one authority (as he fays) inferior only to divine revelation:' and this is an expreffion in the petition or fupplication of parliament to Queen Mary in 1554;' wherein they fpeak of themfelves as representing the whole body of the realm of England and dominions of the fame; which realm and dominions have been commonly described in the Ada Regia of those and fubfequent times, as confifting of our kingdom of England, dominion of Wales, and town of Berwick upon Tweed, all of which then actually fent reprefentatives to parliament. We think therefore that a man cannot be said to reason, who, because parliament in 1554 was confidered as reprefenting places which were actually reprefented therein, concludes from thence, that the fame parliament intended to declare themselves the reprefentatives of America, which they actually did not represent, and which was not even inhabited by a fingle fubject of the crown: and yet this is the only pretended proof to fupport the fundamental affertion in queftion: and fo well is he fatisfied with it, that he exultingly expatiates on the glaring abfurdity of contending that, it is the criterion of British liberty to be taxed by parliament,' and is tyranny in that parliament to tax the Americans;' though a little attention to the relations of things, might probably have discovered to a reasonable man, that the very circumftances which make it safe and defirable for the people of Great Britain to be taxed by parliament, make it unfafe and grievous for another people to be taxed by that parliament. The commons of Great Britain in impofing taxes within the realm, grant what they and their conftituents must pay. But in taxing the people of France, they would grant the property of others and make gifts which coft nothing either to themselves or their conftituents: and in taxing the people of America, they not only grant fupplies of which they pay no part, but have the additional fatisfaction of thereby faving their own money and that of their conftituents. In a proteft against the repeal of the ftamp act, figned by thirty-three of the lords, it is declared to be the indifpenfable duty of parliament to tax the colonies in order to ease the gentry and people of Great Britain.' It has therefore been feared that under fuch convictions of the duty of parliament, the love of eafe fo natural to the gentry,' might in fome future age operate fo as to render the people of America uneafy, if they fhould patiently fabmit to the exercife of parliamentary taxation.
In defence of the fuppofed expediency of the late measures which now threaten us with alarming confequences, our Author offers very little; indeed at one lucid interval he feems to condemn them; de
claring ex post facto acts of parliament' to be dangerous in civil, and tyrannical in criminal queftions:' and propofing that inftead of paffing empty unavailing declarations of the rights of parliament, and conftituting ourselves judges in our own caufe,' we should try the right like men,' by fubmitting the difpute to be judged by the fages of the law-the twelve Judges of England; and that in the mean time every hoftile, every penal proceeding against America may be stopped, and mercy, like the dew from heaven, may fall on the heads of the deluded and mifguided Colonifts; in whom the love of liberty, and their natale folum cannot be an unpardonable offence in the fight of Englishmen.'
Art. 15. Great Britain's Right to tax the Colonies placed in the cleareft Light, by a Swifs. 8vo. I S. Davenhill.
This Swiss is an advocate for the people of America, chiefly on grounds which have been before trodden by others. Art. 16. A Letter from a Virginian to the Members of the Congress, &c. Boston printed. London reprinted. 8vo. 1 s. Wilkie. Our Virginian appears to have made an effort to diffuade the members of the Congrefs from adopting the non importation and nonexportation agreements; but as they have difregarded his arguments, and as his performance contains nothing new or important to the people of Great Britain, we think the republication of it here was unfeasonable.
Art. 17. Thoughts of a Traveller upon our American Difputes. 8vo. 1 s. Ridley.
This pamphlet confifts of letters lately printed in the Public Advertiser, and contains fome good, together with some inconfiftent, observations.
Other POLITICAL Publications. Art. 18. Pieces first published in the Public Advertiser.-Sketch of the prefent Reign, &c. &c. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Kearly. 1774. Thefe papers exhibit, first, a most unpleafing, and even frightful whole-length portrait of that court dæmon, by whom, it is afferted, the administration of our public affairs hath been uniformly directed, whether openly or fecretly, ever fince the commencement of the present reign. With this alarming piece is given, as its companion, an Oriental Tale. From the tale our attention is diverted to the Portrait of a modern Orator ;—a caricature of Lord Chatham. In the rear of the difguftful group we have a lively sketch of the famous Bolingbroke; whofe pernicious maxims are pointed out as the primary fource of that dangerous ftream of politics on which government hath unhappily embarked, and greatly hazarded, the national welfare,
The concealed Author of thefe four pieces writes with an air of intelligence, and information, fuperior to the generality of newspaper politicians: with whom, however, it is certain, the best pens of this country are frequently affociated. In invective he is free, in affumptions bold, in reprefentations plaufible, in conclufions defperate for although he finally admits that there are ftill, in our conftitution, remedies for all the disorders of the ftate,' yet he clogs this conceffion with a defponding kind of if, which at once dashes from our lips the cup of comfort he had prefented us with; if, fays he,
there were but heads and hearts to apply them: but, alas! he adds, you will wait long enough before any hope of fuch an application ceases to be treated, in theory and practice, as an Utopian chimera:at leaft, according to all appearances, hitherto, of the PRESENT REIGN.'
Although we have by no means fo bad an opinion of the prefent fituation of " poor Old England," as this warm though fenfible Writer feems to have conceived, yet we think his pieces deferve to be read with attention, by all parties. He traces, from the out-fet, the whole course of the FAVOURITE's conduct, marks his footsteps, and infifts that the line of his progress leads in full and obvious direction, to the national ruin.
Our fanguine Author has fome ftriking obfervations on the com duct of government, with respect to the prefent difputes with the colonies; and he totally condemns it, in every instance.
He is no lefs fevere on the Quebec bill, which he reprobates as a measure most injudicious, unconftitutional, unneceffary, and alarming; as affording a prefumptive proof of that train of complaifance to the French court, of which the cabinet has been, with too much appearance of reafon, accused, from the very firft of this reign.' And this complaifance he refolves into the influence of Bolingbroke's counfels in the court of the late Prince of Wales.-Of the juftice of this laft charge, thofe are the best judges who were intimate in the cabinet of Carlton House: and whether or not this animated Writer was of that number, is beft known to himself.--Perhaps he ranks with the outs; and, indeed, fuch an air of pique, and perfonal enmity prevails throughout these pieces, as may induce many Readers to refolve the whole of our Author's public representations into private refentment.
Art. 19. An impartial Review of the Proceedings of the late Houfe of Commons. Wherein the Characters, Views, Principles, and Abilities of the principal Leaders in Adminiftration, and of their Opponents, are fairly ftated. By one of the late Barons of the Cinque Ports. 12mo 2 s. 6d. Witts. 1774.
Black and all black! The plan of the Author was not to elucidate, in this effay, all the acts of the legislature, in a retrospect of fix years. We have ftated the most glaring acts, and the most deAructive of the liberty of the fubje&; with the opinion of the few honeft men who oppofed, to no purpose, all the wretched measures of a profligate majority.'-Well faid, brother Reviewer, of the Cinqueports! at 'em, Heart of Oak fhew the rogues not a grain of mercy : efpecially as they are all dead, and there is no danger in trouncing the dogs.
One thing, however, puzzles our patriotic brother; it is furprifing, fays he, that a parliament fo notoriously venal, has given its fanction to make perpetual Mr. Grenville's bill, which will leffen the ministerial influence in contested elections, and determine without injuftice and partiality, the rights of the reprefentatives and their conftituents.'
Sure enough, fuch inconfiflency in fo corrupt and unprincipled a body,' is fufficient to poze any honest well-meaning Reviewer,
whether a baron of the Cinque-ports with our Author, or garretter of Grubstreet with the monthly critics!
"Ye vile pack of vagabonds, what do ye mean?"
Our Author tells us, in his concluding paragraph, that during two fucceffive parliaments, he had the happiness to merit, by a conftant attention to his duty, the esteem of his conftituents.' We take it for granted, if he fat in the laft parliaments, that he was one of those who opposed, to no purpose, the wretched measures of a proAligate majority.'
The accounts here given of the characters, views, and principles of the leading members, are but light sketches, and must prove very unfatisfactory to the inquifitive Reader.
Art. 20. A full and clear Proof that the Spaniards can have no Claim to Balambangan. By Alexander Dalrymple. 8vo. 1 Sa Nourfe. 1774.
Balambangan is a fmall ifland in the Eaft Indies, fituated at the north point of Borneo, and lately belonging to the King of Sooloo; who, in 1762, made a ceffion of it to the English. In 1763, Mr. Dalrymple took poffeffion of it for the East India Company, and hoifted the British flag. Since that event, a proper force was fent over, and a regular fettlement made on the island, under the direction of Mr. Harbord, one of the council of Bencoolen, who was appointed governor. This gave fufficient umbrage to the Spaniards and Dutch, who are, with reason, extremely jealous of our fixing a trading ftation fo near to the Philipinas and Moluccas; and ac cordingly our late advices from that part of the world inform us, that the Spanish governor of Manilla hath peremptorily required the English to evacuate the island. With this demand Mr. Harbord did not think proper immediately to comply; and, when the intelligence came away, was preparing to defend himself: though with little prospect of fuccefs, against fo fuperior a force.
Whether this event will open a breach between the two crowns, will hereafter be feen. In the mean time, Mr. Dalrymple, who well understands the subject, and is one of the beft geographers of the age, infifts that, according to the treaty of Munfter, in 1648 †, the Spaniards have no right to extend their Eaft Indian navigation farther than they had at that time carried it: confequently that they can have no claim to Balambangan.-If this caufe were to be determined in Westminster-Hall, there is no doubt but the King of Spain would, after a due courfe of demur and formality, be caft; but as it will probably be tried on the spot, and in a more fummary way, the event is not altogether fo certain.
With refpect to the importance of an establishment at Balambangan, to the East India Company, our Readers may confult Mr. Dalrymple's Plan for extending the Commerce of this Kingdom, &c. published
* Balambangan was, before the English took poffeffion of it, uninhabited.
+ The only treaty fubfifting between the English and Spaniards, which explains and regulates the rights and limits of the latter, in the Eaft Indies.
about two years ago; in which is a particular defcription of this ifland, its fituation, harbours, natural productions, &c. &c. POETICAL.
Art. 21. Ode on the Inftitution of a Society in Liverpool, for the Encouragement of Defigning, Drawing, Painting, &c. Read before the Society, Dec. 13, 1773. 4to. Liverpool printed. No mention of any Bookfeller there, or in London. 1774.
The liberal spirit of commerce, aflociated with religious and philofophic freedom, has ever been propitious to arts and letters. Where thofe principles have flourished, the fciences that adorn humanity have flourished too, and in no part, we will venture to say, of our immenfe commercial dominions have they been more warmly culti vated, than in the large and opulent town of Liverpool, and its precincts. The recent inftitution, in honour of which this little poem was written, is, among many others that these polished people have given us, an inftance of the truth of this observation.
As the poet's object was principally to extol the imitative art, for the promoting of which the Liverpool Society was instituted, he politely places it upon an equality with his own, though the former is, andoubtedly, in many refpects, inferior to the latter:
Hers is the glowing bold defign,
Yet ftill may Painting's glowing hand
In every province claim her mingled part,
The wondering fenfe to charm, or moralize the heart,
The comparison of Painting, in its operations, with Music is very pretty and ingenious:
When just degrees of shade and light
With every different charm which Mufic's hand fupplies. The two concluding ftanzas are perfectly well appropriated, interefting, and elegant.