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lava; and the more fo, as many of the lumps appear to be of the very fame ftone of which the pillars are formed; this whole ftratum lies in an inclined pofition, dipping gradually toward the S. E."
What a feast for a philofopher,-fhould the foregoing particulars affift him in his inquiries concerning the production of fuch amazing specimens of natural mafonry-In the work before us, no conjectures of this kind are hazarded.-That these vaft architectural rocks were, however, formed by volcanos, feems to be no matter of doubt with those who have seen not only the wonders of Staffa, but others of a fimilar kind, which are found in Iceland; not to mention fome of inferior note in Italy, and other places.
Mr. Pennant contents himself with pronouncing Staffa to be a genuine mass of bafaltes; by which term he means jointed columns, fuch as thofe of the Giant's Causeway, and of this ifland. The latter is a coarfe kind, of a dirty brown colour; the Irish bafaltes is, for the most part, a fine black: but the columns at Staffa have greatly the preference, as to the grandeur of their appearance.
But Staffa, including its little neighbour, Boo-fha-la *, was not the only place where our Voyagers met with basaltic rocks. Afterward, on journeying over the ifle of Skie, which for its fuperior magnitude may be called the metropolis of the weftern ifles, they met, in the front of an high hill, called Briis-mhawl, with
a fine feries of columns,' above 20 feet high, and confifting of 4, 5, and 6 angles, or fides, but moftly of 5. These pillars refembled thofe of the Giant's Causeway, except that they were lefs frequently jointed; the joints being at great and unequal distances: but the majority are entire. The ruins of these columns at the bafe, fays Mr. Pennant, made a grand appearance: they were the ruins of the creation: those of Rome, the work of human art, feem, to them, but as the ruins of yesterday. At a small distance from thefe, on the flope of a hill, is a tract of fome roods entirely formed of the tops of feveral feries of columns, even and clofe fet, forming a reticulated furface, of amazing beauty and curiofity. This is the moft northern bafaltes I am acquainted with; the last of four in the British dominions, all running from S. to N. nearly in a meridian. The Giant's Causeway appears first; Staffa fucceeds; the rock Humbla about 20 leagues further; and finally the columns of Briis-mhawl: the depth of ocean, in all probability, conceals the loft links of the chain.'-This vaft idea by no means precludes that of a volcano.
It is now time for us to put an end to this philofophic and amufing voyage. Accordingly, on the 28th of July, we land thefe laudably inquifitive Gentlemen fafely in Ross-shire; from
To which may be added the rock of Humbla, not far to the weft of the neighbouring ifland of Cannay; this rock being allo formed of bafaltic columns.
whence we conduct them through Sutherland (DESCRIPTION ever attending their fteps) to Inverness.
The remainder of Mr. Pennant's itinerary is enriched by his farther defcription of the Highlands; in which we have an account, with engravings, of fome notable Danish antiquities found there, and fome other curiofities. This part of the work is much enlivened by occafional difplays of the manners and customs of the people: in one place we meet with the following paffage :
There is not an inftance of any country having made so sudden a change in its morals as this I have juft vifited, and the vast tract intervening between these coafts and Loch nefs. Security and civilization poffefs every part; yet 30 years have not elapfed fince the whole was a den of thieves, of the most extraordinary kind. They conducted their plundering excurfions with the utmost policy, and reduced the whole art of theft into a regular fyftem. From habit it loft all the appearance of criminality: they confidered it as labouring in their vocation; and when a party was formed for any expedition against their neighbour's property, they and their friends prayed as earnestly to heaven for fuccefs, as if they were engaged in the most laudable defign.
The conitant petition, at grace, of the old Highland chieftains, was delivered with great fervor in these terms: "LORD! turn the world upfide down, that Chriftians may make bread out of it." The plain English of this pious requeft was-That the world might become, for their benefit, a fcene of rapine and confufion.'
This may be called (to fpeak in the prefent prevailing mode of northern literature) the mechanical effect of religion upon rude nations. Our Author relates many other curious particulars relative to the Highland banditti: whofe pious regards to the obligations of an oath were of the fame ftamp with their prayers and graces. But their hofpitality, like that of the wild Arabs, was genuine, and inviolable.
We must here, though unwillingly, clofe our extracts from a work which abounds with the most feductive materials, fuch as might infenfibly lead the unwary Reviewer into details that would fill every page of the ufual quantity for a month. To travel with a Pennant, a Banks, and a Solander, is, indeed, beguiling the time: but we must not forget that other objects demand our attention. Mean while we look forward, with pleafing expectation, for the appearance of the second volume of this Tour: which will, as the Author expreffes it, compre
Our Author has likewise many valuable remarks on the too ge. neral neglect of agriculture in fome of thefe parts, particularly in the islands; and on the unhappy caufes and confequences of that fpirit of migration which hath lately poffefied the milerable natives; tempting them to prefer a temporary bondage in a frange land, to ftarving for life in their native foil.'.
hend the travels through part of Argylefhire, Breadalbans, Athol; the remaining part of Perthshire; the counties of Angus and Merns; Fifeshire, Sterling, Linlithgow, Edinburgh; and from thence by Kelfo, into Northumberland; Durham, and Craven in Yorkihire, till the conclufion, at my own houfe:
With this volume will be given, we are farther told, a corrected map of North Britain and its islands; which we, in vain, fought for among the very numerous and excellent engravings which adorn the prefent publication.
The volume before us is elegantly printed: a circumftance which we particularly mention for the credit of the ancient city of Chefter, where Mr. Monk's prefs claims the honour of its production. We do not, however, think that Mr. Pennant has been fo attentive to the correction of the language as the importance of his work, and the very hand fome appearance of the book, undoubtedly required. We will give a specimen, or two, of fome of thofe little defects which might have been easily removed, in revifing the proof-fheets :-P. 38, the Druids meet
to fet in council;' vulgarly, inftead of fit. P. 43. return back; tautology. P. 125, irrefiftless beauty; for irresistible. P. 156, Am fhewn a precipitous rock, where I was informed that the hero Wallace was pursued to;' inftead of to which thẹ hero was pursued. P. 169, the basking_fhark a perfect monfter;' perfect imperfection. P. 181, Fingal, whom tradition fays, refided in this ifland;' inftead of who refided.-Several more fuch flips we obferved. and all unnoticed in the table of Errata; but they will readily occur to the ingenious and learned Author, on a revifal.
* At Downing, in Flintshire.
ART. VI. The prefent State of the British Empire. Containing a Defcription of the Kingdoms, Principalities, Iflands, Colonies, Conquefts, and of the Military and Commercial Establishments, under the British Crown, in Europe, Afia, Africa, and America. By the late Rev. John Entick, M. A. and other Gentlemen. Illustrated with Maps, &c. 8vo. 4 Vols. 11. 4 s. Law, &c. 1774.
EW books are more generally known, than those which have been published under the title of The prefent State of Great Britain, &c. by Chamberlain, by Meige, and by others, Thefe crowded performances have been ufually printed in one large octavo volume; but the plan on which they were formed is here extended fo as to comprehend a much greater variety of particulars, including the neceffary additions and improvements to which later times have given birth.
This work, therefore, may be confidered as exhibiting a more complete view of all our public eftablishments, &c. than hath yet appeared in any one fcheme of publication, however comprehenfive, under the fame title; and on this account it will justly be
regarded, by many, as a little library in itfelf: efpecially by readers whofe fituations in the country, lie too remote from other fources of literary information.
But as this compilement is, for the greatest part, drawn from preceding Authors, who fell into many errors which no collector, however diligent, could be equal to the task of wholly rectifying, fo the prefent multifarious affemblage of particulars, muft, in course, abound with fuch defects, as were, in a manner, infeparable from the materials of which it is compofed. Yet, whatever may be the imperfections of this performance, it is certainly to be numbered among the moft ufeful books of the kind in the English language.
The writer of the preface hath bestowed a warm encomium on the united labours of Mr. Entick and his industrious affociates, in his preface; wherein, however partial, he has not perhaps very unjustly eftimated the merits of this large body of national defcription.-Part of what he fays is, in fubftance, as follows:
The principal aim of the work, he obferves, is public utility. The Authors, fays he, have attempted to lay before their Readers a political Chart of the BRITISH EMPIRE, with its territories and connexions in every quarter of the world. We are here prefented with a fuccinct account of the conftitution of the kingdoms, and other dominions, annexed by conqueft or otherwife, to the crown of Great Britain: the legislative and executive powers of the government are accurately diftinguished; the prerogatives of the crown are afcertained; the rights, immunities, and liberties of the fubject are elucidated and fupported by authorities, and the law of the land.-Here we fee the fhare of government alloted to each distinct branch of the legislature, or in what hands the power of framing and executing our laws is invefted. The ftate of religion is minutely difcufled; the feveral modes of worship, authorifed by the act of toleration, are defcribed, from an accurate enquiry into their forms of ecclefiaftic regulations; the laws against papifts are collected and arranged under proper heads.
The nobility and gentry, it is added, may here trace their honours and privileges to their fources. The freeholders, merchants, tradefmen and manufacturers range under the defcription of yea manry; and to his account of the naval department the Author has fubjoined the state of the British army and militia.
• Those who wifh to form fome acquaintance with the gentlemen of the long robe, will fee the origin and various divifions of the law into ftatute, civil, and common, explained; with a differtation on the utility, power, and duty of juries; and a description of the various forms of trying criminals.'
Infinite pains, we are told, have been taken in the researches into the nature, antiquity, jurifdiction, mode of proceeding, and
power, of parliament; the king is defcribed in his legiflative and executive capacity; and of the revenue or means to fupport the ftate and government, fome idea may be formed from the detail of the treasury, exchequer, cuftom-house, excifeoffice, ftamp-office, post-office, &c.
Another part of the work is appropriated to the natural hif tory and topography of the three kingdoms; in which, however, we meet with no very important additions to what may be found in the old accounts, and later compilements, fuch as Camden's Britannia; the Tour through Great Britain, &c. &c. The great alteration, however, made in the face of the country, by the prevailing attention to inland navigations, fince the above-mentioned books were written, is not unnoticed in this publication. The Duke of Bridgewater's canal is defcribed; and the plan of the great Staffordshire navigation is inferred.
The British fettlements in North-America and the WeftIndies are likewife defcribed, and their utility to and connexion with the mother country, are related and explained; with at view of their conftitution, government, charters, and laws; and fome accounts of the native Indians. Nor are our fettlements and factories on the coaft of Africa, in Turkey, and in Perfia, omitted.
But, fays the Editor, what hath made a confiderable object in this work, is an account of our trade to the Eaft India company's fettlements in Afia. Here a particular attention has been paid to every circumftance of importance that could contribute to the information of the public on this head; the quantity of exports, the receipts, difbursements, and confumption of various articles; the nett profits arifing from the Afiatic branch of traffic, in short, every minute particular relative to the mercantile intercourse carried on between Great Britain and her different settlements in China and the Eaft-Indies, is laid down with an accuracy feldom aimed at, and as feldom executed in works of this kind; nor are the relations confined to matters of merchandize merely: the late changes in the conftitution of the Company, the fource of thofe changes; the fubítance of the enquiries fet on foot by the late felect and fecret committees ; an abftract of the late regulating act, together with the inftructions framed by a committee of directors for the guidance of the governor-general and council in their civil administration of justice in India; thefe have been related with fidelity and difcuffed with perfpicuity.'
In a word, we agree with the writer of the prefatory account here quoted, that an attempt has been made to compile this work in fuch a manner as to render it intelligible to the multitude, yet ferviceable to men of refinement. For the multitude, however, it seems chiefly calculated; and if they generally ac