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Mr. Bryant imagines, that the facred influence under the name of Amphi is often alluded to in the exordia of the poets, efpecially by the writers in Dithyrambic measure, when they addrefs Apollo. Taken in its ufual fenfe (aup circum) the word has no meaning: and there is otherwife no accounting for its being chofen above all others in the language to begin hymns of praise to this deity, who was the principal God of Prophecy.
The circumftance of the deity being carried about in a fhrine was always attended with fhouts and exclamations, and the whole was accompanied with a great concourse of people. The ancient Greeks ftiled these celebrities the proceffion of the P'omphi (Pi being the ancient Egyptian prefix) and from hence were derived the words Tourn, and Pompa.-Many places were from the oracle called P'ompean: and supposed by the Romans to have been fo named from Pompeius Magnus; but they were too numerous, and too remote, to have been denominated from him or any other Roman. There was, indeed, Pompeiæ in Campania: but even that was of too high antiquity to have received its name from Rome.-Befides the cities ftiled Pompean, there were pillars named in like manner; which by many have been referred to the fame perfon. But they could not have been built by him, nor were they erected to his memory. This our Author fhews from their history.
The vine was esteemed facred both to Dionufus and Bacchus. This tree had, therefore, the name of Ampel, which the Greeks rendered Ausλos, from the Sun, Ham, whofe peculiar plant it was. This title is the fame as Omphel before mentioned, and relates to the oracular deity of the Pagan world; under which character Ham was principally alluded to. As Mr. Bryant has proved that Ampelus, and Omphalus, were the fame term originally, however varied afterwards, and differently appropriated; fo, likewife, he has fhewn that the word Nympha came from Ain Ompha; and that from Al Ompha was derived Lympha. This differed from Aqua, or common Water, as being of a facred, and prophetic nature. The ancients thought, that all mad perfons were gifted with divination; and they were in confequence of it ftiled Lymphati.
Under the terms, Pator and Patra, our learned Writer informs us, that he cannot help thinking that the word Tarn, Pater, when used in the religious addreffes of the Greeks and Romans, meant not, as is fuppofed, a father, or parent; but related to the divine influence of the deity, called by the people of the East, Pator. From hence he would infer, that two words, originally very diftinct, have been rendered one and the fame. The word, Pater, in the common acceptation, might be applicable to Saturn-But when it became a title, which
was bestowed upon gods of every denomination, it made Jupiter animadvert with fome warmth upon the impropriety, if we may credit Lucilius:
Ut Nemo fit noftrum, quin Pater optimus Divêm eft:
Janus, Quirinus, Pater, omnes dicamur ad unum. And not only the gods, but the hierophantæ in moft temples; and those priests in particular, who were occupied in the celebration of mysteries were filed Patres: fo that it was undoubtedly a religious term imported from Egypt.-The true name of the Amonian priefts was Pater or Pator; and the inftrument which they held in their hands, was ftiled Petaurum.-The pateræ, or priefts, were fo denominated from the deity ftiled Pator; whofe fhrines were named Patera, and Petora. They were oracular temples of the Sun, which in after times were called Petra, and afcribed to other gods. Many of them, for the fake of mariners, were erected upon rocks and eminences near the fea: hence the term warga, Petra, came at length to fignify any rock or stone, and to be in a manner confined to that meaning. But in the firft ages it was ever taken in a religious fenfe; and related to the fhrines of Ofiris, or the Sun, and to the oracles, which were supposed to be there exhibited.— There is in the hiftory of every oracular temple fome legend about a ftone; fome reference to the word Petra. To clear up this it is neceffary to ob- ferve, that, when the worship of the Sun was almost univerfal, this was one name of that deity even among the Greeks. They called him Petor, and Petros; and his temple was ftiled Petra. This they oftentimes changed to ados; fo little did they underftand their own mythology.
Mr. Bryant's discoveries, relative to the words Pator and Patra, have enabled him to explain the strange notion about the prophecy of Anaxagoras, the ftory of Tantalus, and feveral other curious points of ancient literature.
The next differtation is entitled, an Account of the Gods of Greece; to fhew that they were all originally one God, the Sun. Under this article our Author exposes the ignorance of the Grecians, and produces very important evidence, in fupport of his position.
As there has been much uncertainty about the purport and extent of the terms Phoenix and Phoenices, and they are of great confequence in the course of hiftory, Mr. Bryant hath thought proper diftinctly to ftate their true meaning. They are terms of honour, which feem at firft to have been given to perfons of large ftature; but in procefs of time were conferred upon people of power and eminence.-There were Phoenicians of various countries. They were to be found upon the Sinus Perficus, upon the Sinus Arabicus, in Egypt, in Crete, in Africa,
in Epirus, and even in Attica.-In fhort, it was a title introduced at Sidon, and the coaft adjoining, by people from Egypt.It were therefore to be wifhed, that the words Phoenix and Phoenicia had never been used in the common acceptation; at leaft when the difcourfe turns upon the more ancient history of Canaan.
The term Cahen denoted a priest, or prefident; and it was a title often conferred upon princes and kings. Nor was it confined to men only: it was frequently annexed to the names of deities, to fignify their rule and fuperintendency over the earth. From them it was derived to their attendants, and to all perfons of a prophetical or facred character. The meaning of the term was fo obvious, that it might be imagined no miftake could have enfued: yet fuch is the perverfeness of human wit, that it was conftantly mifapplied by the Greeks and Romans. They could not help imagining from the found of the word, which approached nearly to that of xuwy and Canis, that it had fome reference to that animal, and in confequence of this unlucky refemblance they continually mifconftrued it a dog. The progress and effects of their mistake are fully considered by our Author; and among other things, which justly merit the notice of his readers, he hath endeavoured to fhew, that, in the defcriptions which are left us of the Cunocephali, we have an account of an Egyptian feminary of education. The Cunocephali were a facred college, of very ancient inftitution, whofe members were perfons of great learning. Hermes was their patron, and their fituation was probably in the nome of Hermopolis. It is faid of the Cunocephali, that when one part was dead and buried, the other ftill furvived; which can relate to nothing elfe but a fociety, or body politic, where there is a continual decrement, yet part ftill remains: and the whole is kept up by fucceffion.
In treating of Chus, ftiled Xeuros, and Xpurawg, Mr. Bryant informs us, that, among the different branches of the great Amonian family, which spread themfelves abroad, the fons of Chus were the most confiderable; and, at the fame time, the moft enterprifing. They got access into countries widely dif tant; where they may be traced under different denominations, but more particularly by their family title. This we might expect the Greeks to have rendered Chufos, and to have named Xvoar, Chufæi. But by a fatal mifprifion they uniformly changed these terms to words more familiar to their ear, and rendered them Χρυσος, and Χρύσειος, as if they had a reference to gold-Chus-or, Chuforus, they converted to Xgurup, Chrufor: and, in confequence of thefe alterations, they have introduced in their accounts of the places where they fettled REV. Dec. 1774.
fome legend about gold.-The name Chus, so often rendered Chrufos, and Chrufor, was fometimes changed to Xpurawę, Chrufaor, and occurs in many places, where the Cuthites were known to have fettled.-This repeated mistake of the Grecians, of which our Author points out many inftances, arose in great measure from the term Chufus and Chrufus being fimilar.-But there was ftill another obvious reafon for this change. Chus was by many of the eaftern nations expreffed Cuth; and his pofterity the Cuthim. This term in the ancient Chaldäic, and other Amonian languages, fignified gold: hence many cities and countries, where the Cuthites fettled were defcribed as golden; though they had no relation to gold, but to Chus.By a fimilar mistake, Cal-Chus, the hill, or place of Chus, was converted to Chalcus, Xaλxos, brass. Colchis was properly Col-Chus; and therefore called alfo Cuta, and Cutaia. But what was Colchian being fometimes rendered Chalcion, Xaxo, gave rife to the fable of brazen bulls; which were Χαλκιον, only Colchic Tor, or towers.
Mr. Bryant introduces his discourse on Canaan, Cnaan, and Xvas, and on the derivative Xuxvos, with the witty ftrictures of Lucian upon the ftory of Phaethon, and Cycnus, as described by the poets; and he takes notice, that whatever may have been the grounds upon which this fiction is founded, they were certainly unknown to the Greeks; who have misinterpreted what little came to their hands, and from fuch mifconftruction devifed their fables. Phaethon, according to our ingenious Writer, though reprefented by many of the poets as the offfpring of the Sun, or Apollo, was the Sun. It was a title of Apollo, and was given to him as the god of light.-In refpect to Cycnus and his brotherhood, thofe vocal minifters of Apollo, the ftory, which is told of them, undoubtedly alludes to Canaan the fon of Ham, and to the Canaanites his posterity. The name of Canaan was by different nations greatly varied, and ill expreffed; and this mifconftruction among the Greeks gave rise to the fable.-Befides this, the Swan was the infigne of Canaan, the hieroglyphic of the country. These were the causes which contributed to the framing many idle legends; fuch as the poets improved upon greatly. Hence it is obfervable, that wherever we may imagine any colonies from Canaan to have fettled and to have founded temples, there is some story about Swans and the Greeks in alluding to their hymns, intead of uxxva arpa, the mufic of Canaan, have introduced XUXVELO Zoμa, the finging of thefe birds: and instead of the death of Thamus lamented by the Cucnaans, or priefts, they have made the Swans fing their own dirge, and foretel their own funeral. The whole affair of the traditions and notions
of the ancients concerning Swans, and their pretended hatmony, is explained, by Mr. Bryant, in a mafterly and enter taining manner.
Under the head of Temple Science, an account is given of the firft delineation of countries, and origin of maps; which were first described upon pillars. Our Author from hence is enabled to folve the enigma concerning Atlas, who is faid to have supported the heavens upon his thoulders. Though the origin of maps may be deduced from Egypt, yet they were not the native Egyptians by whom they were firft conftructed. Delineations of this nature were the contrivance of the Cuthites, or fhepherds.-Maps, in after times, were sketched out upon the Nilotic Papyrus; and there is likewife reafon to think, that they were fometimes delineated upon walls. Mr. Bryant imagines, that the fhield of Achilles in Homer was copied from fomething of this fort, which the poet had feen in Egypt; and that the garment of Thetis alluded to an hiftorical picture preferved in fome tower. We are forry that we cannot infert this article at length, as it would have afforded much pleasure to our learned and claffical Readers.
From the Author's remarks upon the words Tar, Tor, and Tarit, we learn that the Greeks, having changed Tor to ta gos, a bull, have invented a number of idle ftories in confequence of this change. From hence he explains the story of Geryon, and the brazen bulls of Colchis.-We however sometimes meet with facred towers, which were really denominated Tauri, from the worship of the myftic bull, the fame as the Apis, and Mneuis of Egypt. Such was probably the temple of Minotaurus in Crete, where the Deity was reprefented under an emblematical figure; which confifted of the body of a man with the head of a bull.-Temples, by the Greeks, have been mistaken for deities, and places for perfons, Torone was a place in Macedonia, and literally fignifies the tower of the Sun. The poets have formed out of it a female perfonage, and fuppofed her to have been the wife of Proteus. Amphi-Tirit is merely an oracular tower. This too has been changed to a female, Amphitrite; and made the wife of Neptune. The name of Triton is a contraction of Tirit-On, and fignifies the tower of the Sun, like Torone: but a deity was framed from it, who was fuppofed to have had the appearance of a man upwards, but downwards to have been like a fifh.-Cerberus was the name of a place, as well as Triton, or Torone, though esteemed the Dog of Hell. The term properly fignifies the temple, or place of the Sun. The great Luminary was styled by the Amonians both Or and Abor; that is, Light, and the Parent of Light and Cerberus is properly Kir-Abor, the place of that deity. The fame temple had different names from the diverfity