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oppofition to the term administration; which rather fignifies the government of properties.
It will, perhaps, be objected to me, that war is the first fource of authority, and, confequently, of government; to which I answer, that fuppofing the war to have been long, and the army numerous, the government of this army must still have appertained to a polity; and that if the war had been speedily concluded, a quiet fociety, and the poffibility that men might live together without being molefted, would have proved the firft object of the conqueror, and the first fruits of peace. these two cafes, a polity would have been eftablifhed, either in the camp, or in a newly rifing city. Were thefe confiderations to be extended to the animal creation, it would, in like manner, appear, that the fociety of wild beafts, which, independent upon each other, eafily procure their fubfiftence, is the moft imperfect fociety of all; and that the fineft examples of a regular polity, difcernible in the works of nature, are found amidst the hillocks of ants, and the hives of bees. Every thing, therefore, concurs to prove that the first conventions were made for a multitude, and that they were confined, as it were, to the laws of juxta-position.
Far from fuppofing that it is neceffary, ftill more extenfively, to unfold thefe truths, we apprehend that they would appear too fimple and trivial, if we did not prefs forward towards a demonftration of their importance, and fix the attention on those contradictions, which reign amidst the first principles of all government, and the ends which all government fhould have in view.
What, in fact, are human creatures upon the earth? They are children at the breaft, obliged to prefs the bofom, from which they must receive their nourishment. What are human creatures in cities? They are tranfplanted plants; improvident and uncertain beings; and like that multitude of microfcopic animals, which fluctuating from fide to fide, and inceffantly precipitat ing themfelves upon each other, feem to have been created only that they might preferve themfelves in motion.'
In the fecond Volume the ingenious Author confiders the ftate of human nature among the moderns. He traces the origin of the feodal government, and the ftate of the French monarchy under it. He confiders the revival of learning in all its political confequences; and this leads him to fome general account of learned men. All lovers of real knowledge will feel a pleasure in the unbiaffed teftimony which he bears to the eminent worth of Dr. Franklin and Mr. Marmontel; two philofophers, who seem to be as much diftinguished by the amiablenefs of their characters, as by the excellence of their underftanding. We fhall please the philofophical reader by inferting Cc 4 thefe
thefe paffages at full length: From the mathematics, anatomy, chemistry, and natural hiftory united together, arofe, at length, the true fcience of phyfics, or the history of nature, in the great. This fcience ceafes, in our days, to be the forced explication of a vain system of metaphyfics, or of fome ill-obferved phænomena. It is an edifice, formed of an immenfe concurrence of experiments, tried by induftrious men, and compared by men of genius. Des Cartes had found the laws of dioptrics, and Newton the laws of optics. A great, and magnificent difcovery was referved for thefe times; and this is electricity, the terrible effects of which have placed mankind on an equality with the gods of antiquity, whilt Franklin, like another Prometheus, acquired the art of ftealing the celeftial fire, and rendering it docile to his laws *.
France hath begun to tafte the fruits of a fimilar union (to that of Metaftafio and Pergolefe), fince one of her beft poets, and one of her beft musicians, have tuned their lyres together.'
The poet to whom the Chevalier alludes, is M. de Marmontel, of the French academy, and hiftoriographer to the King, but better known in England by his Moral Tales and Belifarius. The musician is Mr. Gretry, whofe compofitions -are full of harmony and tafte. Several friends of M. de Marmontel prevailed on him to write, and adapt fome dramatic pieces, to a kind of Gallico-Italian mufic, which hath lately been introduced, and gains great ground in France. The very favourable reception which the united labours of these elegant affociates have met with, render all encomiums needlefs. The titles of fome of the pieces are "Le Huron," " Zemire, et Azor," "L'ami de la Maifon, &c." M. de Marmontel, who, fays the Tranflator, in his note, feems in all his works to have imagined, that genius and virtue fhould never feparate, hath lately employed his abilities in p'eading the caufe of the diftreffed.
"The reader may recollect the dreadful fire in the Hotel Dieu, the fituation of which is equally unhealthy and confined. Mr. de Marmontel in his "Voix des Pauvres," a performance where the graces of poetry, and the effufions of humanity are charmingly interwoven, enforces the neceffity of removing the hofpital to a purer and more convenient fpot. This epiftle, (for tuch is the form into which the Author hath thrown it) is dedicated to the King, and fold for the benefit of the poor.
"The charitable poct feems lefs infpired than the wife Archbishop of Paris with the fpirit of the good old times, which, in
*The Chevalier is not the only foreigner who hath payed an ele gant tribute to the acknowledged power of our great leader in the fcience of clearicity. Among many inftances we may, particularly, refer to the Appendix to our 47th vol. p. 552. Account of Beccaria's Electricity.
tent on prayers and proceffions, conceived all human aid to be beneath its notice. It is more than probable that the wicked Marmontel, inftead of joining in the service at the church of Notre Dame, was either writing verfes, or collecting money, for the benefit of mifery; whilft the pious prelate fung Te Deum at a folemn mafs, because only few of his fellow creatures were buried under the ruins of the Hotel Dieu. A more commodious hofpital arifing on the contributions of the Archbishop and his flock, would have appeared a better offering to the God of Bounty, than this religious farce, acted by command in every place of worship thoughout the city.
"We observe this new progrefs with so much the more fatisfaction, as it is pofterior to that immortal work, in which the picture of our mental faculties hath been traced by a mafterly hand. Whofocver is defirous of forming the moft extenfive, and exact idea of the advances made by the human underftanding, may easily fatisfy his curiofity, by reading the preli minary difcourfe of the Encyclopedie. This beautiful peristyle of a moft magnificent edifice, may be confidered as the true characteristic of our age; and perhaps the effort which diftinguishes this age the moft from the preceding ages, is the having produced a genius for mathematics, the talents of eloquence, and the fagacity of tafte, all united in the fame individual."
The Author, proceeding in his general view of the states of Europe, concludes the chapter in thefe words, Let us fum up the liberty exifting in the prefent times, and compare it with the liberty which may be difcovered during any other epoch whatsoever. Yet, would there be the leaft room for the comparison, were we to throw into this calculation the liberty which ftill reigns, even in the midst of the most unlimited monarchies? Amongst the ancients, there was fcarcely any medium between a republic and tyranny; but befides that tyranny is become more unufual, fince the middle of the last century, the greater number of thofe provinces, which compofe our modern monarchies, enjoy privileges, laws, and customs, which limit the fovereign authority. The Auftrian power is entirely formed of fcattered provinces, all of which have ftates, entitled to grant, and raise themselves the neceffary fubfidies. Several poffeffions belonging to the electors, and the princes of the empire, are invested with the fame privileges. In France, Languedoc, Brittany, Provence, Alface, Flanders, the Artois, and the provinces of Foix, Navarre, and Bigorre, are legally represented; and, through the whole kingdom, the tribunals carefully watch over the prefervation of properties. Caftile, and Arragon formerly had ftates, but these people have now loft them, whilft, in their place, is fubftituted a certain "I the King," which might with reason prove fomewhat offenfive to
the ear of an Athenian. This alfo must be confeffed; on fome occafions, times of oppreffion arife, during which privileges fleep; but were the ancient republics without their demagogues? Did Alcibiades, Amilcar, or Sylla, leave much power in the hands of the people?
The reader will please to obferve, that in this parallel, I have not gone beyond the limits of the continent; but were I to take in North America, I might well fet Solon and Lycurgus at defiance, by oppofing to them only Locke and William Penn. Let us examine the laws of Penfylvania and Carolina, and compare them with the laws of Sparta, and we shall find them differing from each other, like the domeftic government of a farm, and the rules of the order of Saint Benedict. Who will not enjoy a pleafing fenfation, when he refleas, that a tract of more than four thoufand fquare leagues, is now increas ing its population, under the auspices of liberty and reason, whilft every inhabitant feels that the leading principle of its moral fyftem is equality, as the leading principle of its political fyftem is agriculture.'
The following chapters contain feveral important and useful obfervations on agriculture, population, war, and the national debt. The reader will obferve, that the Author is favourable to the moderns in his comparative eftimates of all thofe circumstances which have an influence on public happiness. This may be owing more to his benevolence than his penetration. Every good mind, however, will give his hearty affent to the animated and humane fentiments with which he concludes the whole work. You who live, and, especially, you who begin to live near the clofe of the eighteenth century, congratulate yourselves on finding America peopled from pole to pole, with European nations. Congratulate yourfelves on perceiving the excellent conftitution of Great Britain reproducing itself over a fpace of more than eight hundred leagues of coafts. Rejoice that a Czar Peter, an Elizabeth, a Catherine, have at leaft begun to civilize those northern countries, from which the enemies of the earth, in former times, rufhed forth. You will lament, as I do, but, probably, you will not always lament that a spirit of avarice, and exclufion fhould have debarred the moft fertile fhores of Afia from the advantages of fociety, and from the least portion of the profperity of Europe. You will, doubtless, demand that, through the favourable affistance of the numerous establishments, to which commerce hath given rife, felicity, (if I may ufe the expreffion) be made to encompass all thofe vaft parts of the world which are ftill barbarous, ftill too far removed from perfection, in order that fenfible minds may be induced to defire a longer life, if it be true that fenfible minds can cherish life. Howfoever wicked, howsoever cor
rupted we may be, we love our kind, our likeness. We love our likeness, because we love ourfelves. There cannot be a more just expreffion, were it well understood! we love all which is identical with ourfelves, all which calls us home to ourselves; and, by this word likeness, must be understood whatfoever refembles us in features, manners, customs, and even in language. Affimilate mankind, therefore, and you make them friends. But, above all, endeavour to affimilate them by their opinions. Whilft we fix the bounds of our understanding, let us contract the field of error. The neceffaries of the mind are fcarcely more extenfive than the neceffaries of the body. Let us learn to know, and to be ignorant: in particular, let us fear the marvellous, and even the fublime. Philofophers! preachers! moralifts! rather employ your talents in forming a people of honeft men, than a small number of heroes; and whatsoever may be the source of our virtues, let us believe that all which tends to multiply men within the nations, and rich crops, over the furface of the earth, is good in itself, is good from intrinfic excellence, and preferable to all which appears valuable in the eyes of prejudice.'
At the close of the second volume we observe a Note, in which notice is taken of Muratori's treatife Della Publica Felicita, publifhed about twenty years fince. The Author declares that he was ignorant of this work while engaged in his own, and expreffes his happiness in paying his tribute of applause to the Italian Author, who has favoured the world with many very judicious reflections on different fubjects in morality and politics: obferving at the fame time, that his plan hath no connection with that of the prefent work, as he treats this matter dogmatically, while we, (fays M. de Chatellur) have almoft conftantly confined ourselves within hiftorical difcuffions, and fimple obfervations. Our readers may remember the account given of Muratori's work in the appendix to our 48th volume. See • Traité fur la bonheur Public,' a French tranflation, with the Author's life, publifhed at Lyons, in 1772, by M. Muratori, the Author's nephew.
Occafioned by Mr. Dun2 s. Johnson. 1774
HIS Lady has done herfelf the honour to defend the li
ART. XI. The Female Advocate; a Poem: combe's Feminead. By Mifs Scott. 4to.
which thofe privileges bring along with them, against those vile ufurpers the Men. Her Poem confifts chiefly of encomiums on fuch learned and ingenious ladies as are omitted in Mr. Duncombe's FEMINEAD, or who have "ftarted up," as fhe