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temple in the time of Nehemiah. However it is evident, that in the two laft chapters he defcribes the advent of the Meffiah fo diftinctly and remarkably, "Behold I will fend my meffenger," as if he were the last of the prophets. This ends that original or writ ten revelation, commonly called by us the Old Testament, or will of God, propofed to all mankind through the ministration of Mofes and the prophets. When Mofes received his commif. fion from God, the world was over-run with idolatry, and he writ to recover mankind from a lapfe into fin and fuperftition to purity, fimplicity, and holiness. For this end he begins with the origin of things, the air, light, earth, fun, moon, ftars, animals, and man; worked miracles, inftituted laws and religious ceremonies, autho rized his writings by many internal proofs, but especially by the external and standing evidence of prophecy, foretelling events which fhould come to pafs, fome of them near two thousand years after his death. The prophets have followed close upon Mofes, explaining and enforcing his laws, and opening his prophecies, the accomplishment of which are attefted by the Greek and Latin writers, and by the facred penmen of the New Teftament. If therefore men believe not Mofes and the prophets, neither will they be perfuaded though one rofe from the dead.

The character of each book, together with the stile of the writer, and the elegance and exactnefs of the Hebrew, hath been induftriously pointed out in the notes, especially on the prophets, in order to lead men to the study of this molt excellent language; nay, it is greatly to be wished that youth were initiated in it even before Latin and Greek; becaufe by this means they would acquire right principles of duty, form a taste of the claffics fo as to difcern their real use and beau ties, and be enabled to understand the New Testament more accurately than they can by the prefent mode of education. As the prophets are an extenfion of building and comment on Mofes, fo is the gofpel on the law and the prophets. It offers not one new doctrine or precept, nor abrogates any founded in nature and reason, but only unfolds and accomplisheth the old. "I am come, faith the Founder of the gofpel, not to deftroy the law, or the prophets, but to fulfil." He came to abolish the interpretations, traditions, and doctrines of those three fhepherds, the Pharifees, Scribes, and Sad. duces, or Chief Priests, Scribes, and Elders (Zech. xi. 8.) but not of Mofes and the prophets. Not only the fubject matter of the New Teftament is that of the Old, but the very language and style of writing. The Greek, as much as it is poffible for one tongue to partake of another, and yet retain its existence, is the idiom and phrafeology of the Hebrew, defignedly and properly, because of the Seventy tranflation in ufe among the Hellenistic Jews, and because the claffic Greek did not afford expreffions anfwering to those of the Hebrew. The Greeks widely differed from the Jews in their object of worthip, and in manners; of course fo muft they in ideas and language. The ftudy of the Old Teftament therefore, and profound knowledge of the Mofaic inftitution, is abfolutely neceffary for that of the Chriftian.”

The above quotations will give the Reader fome notion of what is to be expected from this work: we fhould obferve that


fome few of the books of fcripture have not any remarks added at the end, and with regard to others they are fometimes very fhort, none indeed are long. There is fpare paper that would have admitted of farther reflections, which might ufefully and agreeably have been added. We fhall now offer a few of the notes to our Reader's attention, and then conclude the article.

Gen. chap. i. ver. 16. Light in the fenfe of luminary : lesser a vulgar corruption of lefs: he made alfo, wrong infertions; tars not being governed of made understood, but coupled with light; better thus," The fuperior light to rule the day, and the inferior light, and, or with, the stars to rule the night:" as in Pfalm 136. ver. 8, 9

Chap. iii. ver. 5. As Gods,] The tranflation here improperly follows the Seventy; it ought to be " as God," who certainly knew what evil was fecreted in nature, though man did not, till his fall, after which he is faid to know it, in ver. 22, at first he knew good only.'

As the Hebrew word here ufed is plural, this remark does. not look like that of an Hutchinfonian, though some parts of the book might be thought to wear fuch an afpect.

Chap. vii. ver. 17.] ver. 13, 14, 15, 16, are a parenthefis, and verfe 17, is a repetition of verfe 12, ufed for the fake of refuming the fubject; where the verb in the original being fut. the conjunction fhould be rendered afterwards, or after this, i. e. after Noah's entrance into the ark." After this I fay) the flood was, &c."

Chap. xi. ver. 27. Now thefe are] Now might be omitted as in verfe 10. The conjunctions and, now anfwering to the Heb. fhould often be omitted; its constant repetition tiring the ear and clogging the sense,

Chap. xxxii. ver. 24. A man] Not Adam, homo, algunos, but ih, vir, ame, fome extraordinary perfon, who is called el, that is God, in ver. 28, 30, and chap. xxxv. ver. 9. In Exod. xv. ver. 3. the Lord is called ifb, a man of war.-


Chap. xlv. ver. 7. Here is a ftrong and pofitive belief in a particular providence, which all wife men have ever acknowledged and experienced with confolation and thankfulness, but which the foolish reject to their condemnation.—

Exod. chap. x. ver. 24. And Pharoah] Afterwards (namely after the three days' darkness) Pharoah called unto Mofes.-

. Chap. xii. ver. 35. Borrowed] Alked or required, not borrowed with any agreement or intention to repay for it is faid, the Lord gave the people favour, as foretold chap. iii. ver. 21. and they Spoiled the Egyptians; Mofes told Pharoah, chap. x. ver. 25. "Thou muft give give us"-Alfo in Gen. xv. 14. God promised Abram, "they fhall come out with great fubftance:" all was in right of con queft and matter of favour. Ver. 36, they lent] They granted, or complied with their demands.



Chap. xiv. ver. 17. I will get me honour] What is here faid, and in chap. xii. ver. 12. Against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment," fhews, that the purpose of the plagues was not fa much to punish, as to convert Pharoah, his people, and other na



tions from idolatry to the knowledge of Jehovah. It is fuppofed that Baal-zephon was an eminent and rich idolatrous temple; in the fight of which, as it were, God completed his victory.

Levit. xix. ver. 2. Ye fhall be holy] What is it to be holy? It is diftinctly and finely defcribed in the next and following verfes, "reverence every one his mother and his father, and keep my fabbaths" that is join focial and divine duties together. Thefe are the only proofs of real religion external and internal. Hence it is faid with propriety, "Faith without works is dead," a useless thing.

Sam. xxvi. ver. 10. Or his day] Either his time may come when he fhall die;--or, or, is ufual and elegant in poetry, but not in profe.-

2 Sam. i. ver. 18. Jaher] Hajaher, that is the right, exact; fo that the book Jafher may fignify the correct record, or authentic regifter, in which was made an entry of all important occurrences both civil and religious; and from which materials might be formed the books that have been tranfmitted down to pofterity. Alfo] Even he, or who-

Chap. v. ver. 1. Behold] Behold us-in 1 Chron. xi. 1. it is "behold" which is a variation of phrafe, but not of fenfe. The author of Chron. fometimes adds or diminishes, and fometimes changes the expreffion: this ought to be confidered as a beauty, not a corruption. Ver. 2. fhalt feed] fhalt be a fhepherd over my people; and thou fhalt be a captain over Ifrael.-Here again in 1 Chron. xi. 2. the phrafe is different.-

Chap. vii. ver. 1o. I will appoint] Verse 10, 11, might be rendered in the past tenfe, referring to the land of Canaan, without a parenthefis: appointed,-planted,-might dwell-and that the children of wickedness might not affli& them any more, even ever fince the-And now the Lord telleth thee Here the reader cannot help looking beyond the natural to the fpiritual David, if he would find fenfe and truth in the words of the prophet Nathan, and in David's prayer and thanksgiving. Comp. 1 Chron. chap. xvii.

2 Kings, chap. xiv. ver. 26. Shut up] One under restrictions himself and that has power to restrain others, fome great officer of ftate, a magiftrate, Jud. xviii. 7. and in 1 Sam. ix. 17. 2 Chron, xiv. 11. one who bears rule, reigns or prevails, and the more liable to be shut up, as was Hofhea, 2 Kings, xvii. 4. and the prophet Jeremiah xxxvi. 5. When none is fhut up, nor referved, it is a mark, that all power and every man of confequence, is gone; fee Deut. xxxii. 36.-


Ifaiah, chap. x. ver. 24. He fhall] Though he fmite-

Chap. xxxi. ver. 4. And the] With a young lion - - - he will not be afraid] He ought not to be inferted; for lica is the nominative to the verb afraid and there is no pronoun in the original.

Ver. 8. Not of] Neither of a mighty man, nor fhall the fword of a mean man-See 2 Kings xix. 35. the wonderful accomplishment of this prophecy.--

Chap. xxxii. 2. And a man] which man--- ver. 3. And the eyes of them that fee] Then the eyes of them that are disposed to see,


expreffed by the participle pref. The king here fpoken of is primarily Hezekiah, and fecondarily the Meffiah.-

Chap. xlv. ver. 15. Verily] Certainly thou, O God, art myfte rious, abounding in fecrets.-This verfe comes in very abruptly according to the tranflation, and indeed the original feems to be obfcure, and inconfiftent with ver. 19, and the drift of the whole chapter, which predicts the ceffation of idolatry, effected in the Jewi ftate by Ezra, chap. ix. x. and by Nehemiah, chap. ix. and xiii. with eminent zeal and fevere injunction.——

Chap. liii. ver. 9. Becaufe] Notwithstanding, although-Ending the former part of this verse with a colon or full-point after death, agreeable to the atnach in the original, the latter reads better in connection with ver. 10, thus, "Although he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth, yet it pleased—”

Chap. Ixi. ver. 7. For your fhame] For your twofold (great, Tyndal) fhame and confufion, they (thofe who fhall return from their captivity) fhall rejoice in their inheritance, for which purpose in the land they fhall have a poffeffion a fecond time.-This is an attempt to make fome fenfe, though perhaps not the right translation of this difficult verse.—

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Jer. chap. iii. ver. 19. A pleasant] The defirable-that is, reftore thee to thy land, after it hath been poffeffed by the Affyrian and Chaldean armies.

Chap. xviii. ver. 14. Will a man leave] Will any one leave the fine ftream, that comes from the rock, for the fnow water of Lebanon? Or shall the cool flowing spring be forfaken for the strange, that is, impure, muddy waters? See Numb. xi. 8. Job xxiv. 9. 2 Sam. i. 21. Pf. xxxii. 4. where fignifies fome fine liquid, Aluid, or moisture, as oil, milk." Thou shalt fuck the milk of kings, Ifa. lxi. 16. and lxvi. 11.——

Chap. xx. ver. 14. Curfed] The word

doth not convey the horrid idea of curfed, and ought to be foftened into difregarded, difefteemed, or fome fuch expreffion. He that fuffers great affliction or bafe ingratitude for well doing, will know how to excufe this prophet, who was but a man, with other men of great feelings, for violent resentments.



Dan. chap. x. ver. 13. Withstood] Stood before me—as in ver. 16. It were better to own our ignorance who is the prince of the kingdom of Perfia and of Grecia, and who Michael is, than to fay that by them are meant guardian angels and contending genii, like the gods in Homer: furely fuch interpretations as thefe favour Brongly of heathenifm and popery.

Hof. chap. vi. ver. 5. Hewed them] Hewed with the prophets, by their means, acting as a stone carver to bring men and things into form and fhape-Slain them] Teafed them, namely, the prophets that thy (relative to Ephraim and Judah, not God) judg ments may be

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The 8th verfe of the laft chapter of Hofea Dr. Bayly trandates in this manner:

"When Ephraim fhall fay, What have I to do any more with idols? Then I will anfwer and reform him; from me as a tree ever green, even from me thall thy fruit be found,"

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The notes on the minor prophets are much fewer than we fhould have expected, especially as it is generally faid thefe books are more incorrectly tranflated than most other parts of the Old Teftament. The above collection of notes will probably be acceptable to fome of our Readers, and assist them to judge concerning the importance and value of the work.

Thefe volumes afford the Reader a convenient opportunity of comparing the Hebrew with the English translation, and no better expedient, perhaps, as the Editor obferves, could be propofed to render the ftudy and knowledge of that language eafy and attainable. With this view, he fays, he offers to the Public the cheapest and most commodious edition of the Hebrew fcriptures, that ever was printed. It is decorated with a frontilpiece reprefenting Mofes receiving the law on Mount Sinai, and illuftrated by two maps; one, of journies performed by the Ifraelites, and the other, of their fettlement in Canaan.

Publications on the Subject of LITERARY PROPERTY continued: See our laft.

N° 6. ART. IV. A modeft Plea for the Property of Copy-Right. By Catharine Macaulay. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Dilly.


HOSE writers who poffefs the greatest fhare of original genius, having undoubtedly the fairest profpect of immortality, are the perfons who are principally interested in the decifion of the queftion concerning literary property. After the friking inftances of female genius which the prefent age has produced, it is with peculiar propriety that a female writer fteps forth in fupport of the rights of authors. And though it would, perhaps, be unreasonable to expect, in the fudden effufions of female genius, a connected train of reasoning, or a full investigation of truth, we may generally promise ourselves the fatisfaction of meeting with fenfible obfervations, and lively ftrokes of wit or fancy; and whatever fubjects it takes in hand, we may hope to fee them placed in a new and entertaining point of view.

With fuch expectations we entered on the perufal of this apology for authors: and we can with truth affure our Readers that we have not been disappointed. We do not indeed find in this work any fcientific explanation of the nature of literary property; any philofophical refearches into the grounds on which the rights of authors reft; or any learned examination of their pretenfions to an exclufive property in their works, derived from common law. We even find, at the beginning of the work, pofitions concerning the nature of common law, which feem to confound it with the general principles of equity,


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