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depended from first-floor windows, Bitho Bacchius”-side by side, from carried, a-la-mode de France, down to Oxford Street to Piccadilly. The cut, the ground. Mr Robertson,“ surgeon direct, from Marlborough Street to and apothecary,” (departed) left his Hanover Square-that which one alname to sanction the debut of “ pipe- ways wished to make,“ on the place," clay" and " tobacco ;” and a chim- with one's foot-for you could see ney-sweeper shot out his professional through the house in Argyll Street, brush from the casement of a cottage- that forced you to go a quarter of a built corner mansion—the very “at mile about-the opening is made ; torney's house,” as it had been in- horse and foot pass freely; and the tended for, of all the vicinity !-vio- heroic soul, (as it delights to do,) may lating the feelings of its five-feet-square now drive its gig, straight as the crow porch by the detestable presence of his would fly, to the place of its destinaabominable soot-bags; and nailing a tion. Still, beyond this, or any other picture (moonlight!) descriptive of improvements, of late years, as far as his ulterior views in trade, against the site more immediately is concerned, the very lattices of its Italian drawing- changes in the neighbourhood of Pull room veranda !
Mall and the Italian Opera House, • To what “base uses,” (as well as are the most complete and extraordimonarchs,) may not bricks and mor nary. That especial abode of filth and tar come! Houses have their ups and infamy, St James's Market, and the downs” in the world as well as he avenue leading from it, into which the roes; and No. 7, in Everett Street, back doors of the theatre used to
open, (or the same number in any other called “Market Lane"-the whole street,) may fall as far in the scale of subject matter” of this place—all the fate as ever did Imperial Cæsar ! houses—with the population of fleas, The “ Chivers” ball-room-“ Chivers” low prostitutes, thieves, and back gone away,
ney-coachmen, that infested them, has Might hold a barber who the rent could disappeared ; and the ground is repay.
covered by a range of taverns, coffeeOh! that where housemaids to one's kit houses, and arcades, some of them the jumped up once,
gayest and most highly accustomed in The other now should mangle chins for the kingdom! Ten liberties of rats tiopence!
were left holeless by that one cut from And yet these speculators, here St James's Square, (called “ Charles (such is the bounteous providence of Street,") to the Haymarket Theatre, nature !) did but prepare a resting, which forms almost the only fine point place for the many, who, by other als de vue that we have to such a building, terations and fantasticalities, were to in the metropolis ! Men now dine off be deprived of their gite elsewhere. plate, and drink champagne, upon the An entirely new and magnificent chain very spot of earth which Israel Chapof buildings, forming a street parallel man, the resurrection-man, once ocwith New Bond Street, surpassing picd as a stable; and from which he rethat far-famed avenue in point of tailed out the“ subjects,” piece-meal, splendour, and threatening to equal it which he abstracted from the ground even in point of extortion, was destined -over and above, now and then, an to supersede those ancient and unsa- odd one, (or suspicion wronged him,) voury passes, Swallow Street and King which had never gone through the Street, which ran drawling-—"cum formality of being put into it !* And
*“Mr J. Chapman was a Jew; but, as a resurrection-man, he stood at the head of his profession. Private students of medicine were in the habit of purchasing parcels of subjects' from him-be carrying home the entire man, (when obtained,) and dividing into portions at his own dwelling. In this way, Mr Israel, (or • Easy,' as he was familiarly called by those who knew him,) had the reputation always of having disposed of a sailor who was murdered, about twelve years since, in Vine Street, Covent Garden.. The man in question was thrown, in some affray, out of the window of a low brothel, and was seen by a watchman immediately afterwards, in a state of great bodily injury and suffering; he disappeared, however, either alive or dead, from the spot where he had been lying, in a very strange way; and Chapman, who then lived in Vine Street, was supposed always to have been concerned in his secretion. Chapman was the first man in his calling who hit upon the device of stealing
this is an analysis merely of the locus the warrens of mean dwellings, which which stands completed ; at the op have arisen between Westminster posite corner of the Haymarket, where Bridge and the Borough, matter of a the works are yet in progress, transla- different character, and rather an options of a still more marvellous cha- posite one, presents itself for consiracter await us!
deration. We have left the chosen Here, to the abasement for ever of rallying point of wealth, for the peall “ Whitcomb Street,” (the ancient culiar abode of labour and of poverty. Hedge Lane,) St Martin's porch be- It is in these extreme districts, that comes visible almost from the gates of we find those artists lodged, whose Carlton Palace ! Yonder, the “Fives peculiar craft the law condemns to Court," and all its tumble-down de distance from the community. Your pendencies, seem waiting only for the horse-butcher; your tallow-melter ; mouldering of wax and parchment to your bone-boiler; and your fell-monbe as things that “ were,” and not re ger; all flourish in this region. Here, gretted!
your dustman makes a fortune, by The star of the “ Green Yard" amassing, in the gross, those matters twinkles ! club-houses bestride the which the poorest throw away as usealleys of Suffolk Street, in which coals less in detail. Here, you may conand candles, à l'aimable, used to be vince yourself, if you please, that it is bought and sold ! Panton Street, and a mistake to suppose that the “poor" Oxendon Court, tremble at the pro are rich; for you will see probably spect of their own approaching re one old woman selling gingerbread, spectability, and the furious march of at one corner, day after day, througharchitectural reform-(this must be out the year, whose weekly receipt, the reform" from without,” that the (suppose she gained her stock-in-trade Whigs in Parliament have so often for nothing,) would not compass the talked about !)—the furious strides of half of half a dozen shillings. cleanliness and parochial improve What extraordinary places are those ment, threaten almost to open us a re ten or fifteen different nests of one putable passage into Leicester Square! and two-story tenements, which have
On the far side of the river, among arisen within the last dozen years in
bodies before they were buried; a practice which has since been followed up with great success in the poorer districts about town; and which, from its obvious tendency to spare labour and expense to all parties, may fairly rank among the happiest efforts of modern invention. Chapman was a wag, too, in his way, and had a dog who was well known at the night-louses into which choice spirits' sometimes look (in the way of a “lark,') out of curiosity. The joke, on these occasions, was to cajole a * raw' into paying for glasses of brandy, which • Easy's 'dog, as he protested, would drink “as naturally as a mid-wife drank anniseed. When the liquor came, Easy used to swallow it himself, declaring, that he was not such a fool as to go dry while his dog drank brandy.' Mr Chapman was transported on suspicion of burglary, from the Old Bailey, in the beginning of the year 1819; and died, much lamented, on his passage to Port-Jackson.”—Memoirs of Sporting Characters.
* “ The poor love liberty quite as much as the rich ; but I don't think tbey eat quite so much turtle. Your beggar dreads no calamity so much as the being taken care of;' nine in ten of them had rather take all chances than go into a workhouse ; but that is not (necessarily) because the trade of asking alms is a very good one. Three times in four, where mendicants are found to be in possession of sums of money, I should suspect either a fortunate plunder, or some accident. Money passes from hand to hand in strange ways, and many thefts are committed which the town never hears of. I recollect an old woman, in the neighbourhood of Seven Dials, who kept a lodging-house for poor people, and used to conceal her cash under the hearth-stone of the room she herself inhabited. Going one day to this hoard alone, her whole savings, amounting to fifty guincas, had disappeared ! She was stewardess to a sort of benefit club, and used, on particular days, to have the whole stock of the society in the same place; if the thief had delayed his larceny two days, he would have carried off near five bundred pounds, and beggared half the bedridden washerwomen in the parish. This robbery (recovery was so hopeless) never came before the police. Aged people in the country frequently bury their money in fields and gardens, and are very frequently watched, and their banks broken up.
the swamps of Lambeth, Walworth, into the fog and gloom-resolves-and and St George's Fields ? What a pe- then again puts his hand on his watch culiar squalor is that which attaches and doubts whether the road “round to the street, called “ Webber Row," by the Obelisk” is not the nearer. and to the line now known as “ Char. The convenience of lamps has not yet lotte Street," (where the quack-doc- been discovered in these wild and tors live at the corner ;) in which the marshy fastnesses. Watchmen, (pashow caravans stand encamped for rochial) are an invention of effeminawinter quarters, or repose; making cy, in future ages to be arrived at. up a mimic world, as it were, all of You may escape (if you look very monsters and prodigies !- dwarfs- much as if you were not worth three giants—monkeys-conjurors, and mi- farthings) being throttled by the bulraculous pigs !
ly, who waits, cudgel in hand, for you, A still more miry, and more cut- at the first corner; but no precaution throat character even than this, ap can secure you against the pig whoruns plies to a whole wilderness of crooked between your legs, and carries you off passages, which lead from the point on his back (like a new Mazeppa) called “ Jones's Riding-School,” to at the second.* The wonder is, who the Cobourg Theatre! It is in the can be the people-of what means, or summer season only, or in hard frosts, order, that reside here? A fact, of that these unpaved defiles are passa- which the dweller two miles off knows ble. In vain you urge your hackney no more than the inhabitant of Kamscoachman–“Fucilis descensus"-but chatka ! “ how am I to get back again,” says But if there be curiosity in the many the rogue, “ if I go down there?" the styles of building, which you may enpedestrian wayfarer looks dubiously, counter in a morning's walk through from the gas lights at the corner of London, the varieties which present Blackfriars' Road, as far as he can see themselves, in the way of population,
An old man, who had been a small farmer some time since near me, in Devonshire, hanged himself, and (it was said) in consequence of losing all his wealth in this way. A beggar, who had kept that part of the country for several years, disappeared immediately afterwards. I knew another case, and rather a curious one, in wbich a common beggar must have become possessed of a considerable sum in cash. The guard of a mail-coach, which ran into the west country, was apprehended at Oxford, for being concerned in a 'parcel' robbery, and carried more than a hundred pounds (part of the product of his theft probably) to prison with him. About the same time it happened that a fellow named Marsh, a sort of half-beggar, half-poacher, was committed to the same prison for vagrancy; and, coming into gaol without three-andsixpence, he won the whole of the guard's plunder at some game of cards, or dominos ! This man was actually discharged, at the expiration of his ten days' commitment, with a hundred pounds, money, in his pocket--if any part of the dress he wore afforded such a convenience. Do not judge of beggary too harshly; a penny seldom ruins the giver, even if he does bestow it in the wrong place. Mendicants may be merry, and yet have enough to complain of; law has done something, when it has made want not desperate, but humble. Few men, depend on it, would beg for a farthing, who could earn half-a-crown a-day by their labour-even although they could be certain that the farthing would not be refused to them."-Tyas on Mendicity.
* “ Your citizen of Dyot Street is an eye-sore to his neighbour of Bloomsbury or Bedford Square ; but this propinquity preserves the latter (eventually) from much heavier inconvenience. It is a wonderful spectacle to behold a creature, half naked, and primed with gin, for any act of outrage—to see it rise from its lair, not three steps off, and issue into a street where equipages stand at every door—and yet doing no miscbief! But there is something here more than people look for, in the proverb which says— Tell me your company,' &c. A mechant chien, court lien ! --Dyot Street is safe while it stands in the eye of a better neighbourhood. But, put fifty such streets together, to the exclusion of richer ones, and let them form themselves into a parish; and not only that parish, but all the parishes about it, are likely soon to be unapproachable. Any attempt, however, at a system like this in London, has a tendency to correct itself; for the property of small houses, from the poverty of their tenants, is unproductive.”-Cormack's Paris! Surveyor.
are still more numerous and eccentric. are never to be got rid of your footIt is not merely that you meet diffe man keeps a public-house ten years, rent people at different points, distin- and yet can never knock at the door of guished by circumstances peculiar to it without alarming the whole neightheir rank or calling-sailors about bourhood. So, your pickpocket, from Wapping and Limehouse-grooms his mere slide and saunter, stands deabout Hyde Park and Grosvenor Place tected to a police officer in au instant; -apart from these distinctions, the and the wight who has once driven a people have a different expression of stage-coach, though but a “pair horse" feature-a decidedly different cast of one, will “
square elbows" in his countenance, at Aldgate and in Picca- coffin.* dilly. Everybody who looks at the The red night-caps of our butcher Spitalfields weavers, men, women, and boys, and their still ruddier cheekschildren, perceives that they resemble (if it were not for the gallows, such no other body of artizans in the me rogues might live for ever!)-the hair tropolis. Walk, on a Sunday after au pigeon (to a degree of inherency) noon, in the neighbourhoods of White observable among the haberdashers chapel or Mile-End, you will scarcely the handsome daughters that (beyond meet one handsome female, where at the average of any trade in London) the West End of the town you would fall to the lot of the bakers,—to notice meet twenty. Sunken eyes, snub noses, such peculiarities in town as these, wide mouth, and sallow complexion would be to count the sands of the the population is obviously less pictu- sea, or the words of the Chinese dicresque.
tionary. The crowd can neither be The characteristic stamp (as to fea- describedt nor analysed, but particular ture) thrown by some crafts over groups may be dwelt upon for a mothose who follow them, is notorious. ment. We know a shoemaker all over the Cross the Thames once more, and world by his forehead, as easily as a come, by the way of the Waterloo tailor or a dancing-master by his ad- bridge, to the Surrey side of the river, dress. The marks belonging to habit where you find a sample of bolder
• « Men are very little aware how much their habits, and still more their opi. nions, are referable to the professions which they follow. And yet the thing must be so; for, what can direct our belief, or, at least, what is so likely to do so, as the result of our comparative) experience ? Thus, no man could have a fair trial for fraud, who was tried by a jury composed of horse-dealers—because all the likelihood in the minds of his judges must be in favour of his guilt. I have heard police officers give evidence in courts of justice with great intelligence, and, (as regarded their statements,) with great impartiality; but always with an obvious conviction in their own minds, that the man had committed a crime, who had had it in his power to commit it. Barristers of good Nisi Prius practice, are, in common conversation, most incredulous people ; and always look (though it were a matter stated upon oath) to the probability rather than to the declaration. The influence of occupation goes so far in many minor points, that peculiar feelings, (and certainly particular manners) have seemed, time out of mind, to belong, as of nature, to particular trades. Dyers are a people, throughout all London, accounted uncivil. Linen-drapers are always polite and smirking. Fruiterers and fishmongers every one complains of as impositious. Tailors, all the world knows, give credit instinctively; geese were swans among the auctioneers so long back as the time of Noah. No man in his senses, for six centuries past, has ever believed one word spoken by a picture-dealer, or a curiosity-collector; and a friend of mine, (the most prudent man I ever was acquainted with,) refused to take a house once, because the lessor was an attorney."-Condy-Men and Manners.
+ The most pithy description I ever heard given of a crowd, was delivered in one sentence by a Frenchman, at a late fire. As the mischief and danger increased, the mob, of course, became highly delighted, and the thieves began to hustle those persons who had staid to put their small-clothes on before they came out. A Frenchman who had stood by up to this crisis, buttoned his pockets, and prepared to de part; observing, with a shrug, as he looked back at the assemblage, “ Dere is mosh rascal here!"-T.
erections (at least meditated) than (by day.) Sometimes a muffin-baker those of Webber Row. They are fine comes and tries his fortune for a broad roads those, which are cutting month, or, at a “circulating library," men's houses and gardens now in half they “ see what can be done” with destroying whole streets in some half-a-kit of pickled salmon. But your places, and introducing new popula- publican is the only trailer likely to tion, and new views for existing popu- lock the same door at Christmas and lation, into others ! Here, too, you at Ladyday ; the rest are, fixedly get just now a fair specimen of that and properly, denizens of desertion, to curious phenomenon, a moving popu- whom time and place are encumbrances lation, which is peculiar to cities of of slight corisideration, and who can great extent, and of which London live as well (at free cost) in Petticoat always possesses, in some quarter or Lane as at St Giles's Pound,—who other, a considerable amount.
can migrate, like Tartars, at half-anNeighbourhoods, in their earliest in- hour's notice, (doing it with even less fancy, or in the last stage of their decay of camp equipage or affectation of pu-streets which are to be pulled down blicity)--and whose especial home, at the close of expiring leases, or streets by an instinct contrary to that of the which have been built only to last un animal which otherwise they resemtil a quarter gets into frequency and ble, seems to be the particular spot repute, these localities are always re- which all the world else is forsaking. sorted to by a particular description of This is the line, too, of motley shift individuals, whose nature seems to be and necessitousness, (or rather one to come when others go, and who live of them, for the paths are many upou the small advantages that wealth to the prison and the grave,) which ier trades overlook. Jews, in great leads on eastward to a scene of riot and numbers, are found inhabiting such debauchery, scarcely more fortunate, places, trading (from the time of Pon- and full as disrespectable, as itself; tius Pilate) in old clothes, and latter- but in which the extremes, neverthely more in “china and glass,” than less, of prodigality and privation are many Christians could desire. “Cof- found enduring a degree of association fee-shops," coal-sheds, barbers' stalls, which they seldom court elsewhere, and the dens of dog and bird" fanciers," and where, grotesque as such fellowabound in such lines as the “ Waterloo ship alone at first sight may appear, it Road,” where every cross street that shews as orderly against the strange you look down has a nice green pond, confusion of rank, calling, and characwith a few ducks swimming about in ter, which we find collected. the middle of it; cats'- meat barrows Between the " Obelisk” and the stand at doors with an air as if they “ Elephant and Castle,” there lies, were at home; tinkers and hare-skin somewherein the pavement, a particular collectors entering, cease their cry; stone, which certain persons walk on · and itinerant musicians as they ap one side of, whom some spell seems to proach, clap their fiddles and clarionets keep from passing on to the other. The in their pockets.
King's highway" seems Tabooed to Here and there an apothecary offers these individuals every way beyond a “advice gratis” in a vicinity like this; given limit; and within their permitbut the commonalty has no time to be ted space they wander vacantly up and sick, he can get nobody to take it down-as regards dress and external Cooks’ shops just contrive to exist, and appearance, a marvellously incongruous there is no end to the numbers who assemblage ! It is the modern “ Sancdeal in “marine stores,”—a trope tuary" this—(but for debtors only) in speech meant to typify generally the “ Rules” of the King's Bench prithe property of other people. Rat son—a slight peculium-a slip of neucatchers, bear-leaders, entrepreneurs of tral territory-a sort of “ Debate“Punch," and plaster-figure-makers, able Land," (like the churchyard,) divide “ second floors" with straw on which all kinds and qualities bonnet-menders, feather-cleaners, and may meet ;* and which might challadies who sell ballads against the wall lenge as much, both in the way of
• “ Introductions of a very curious character indeed have sometimes taken place in gaols-I recollect one, which occurred some years since, in Newgate, which