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Antithetic terms or clauses usually take opposite inflections; generally, the former has the rising, and the latter the falling inflection.
1. If you seek to make one rich, study not to increase his stores'. but to diminish his desires'.
They have mouths',-but they speak not`:
NOTE I.-When one of the antithetic clauses is a negative, and the other an affirmative, generally the negative has the rising, and the affirmative the falling inflection.
1. I said an elder soldier', not a better'.
2. His acts deserve punishment', rather than commiseration'.
3. This is no time for a tribunal of justice', but for showing mercy'; not for accusation', but for philanthropy'; not for trial', but for pardon'; not for sentence and execution', but for compassion and kindness'.
The Pause of Suspension, denoting that the sense is incomplete, usually has the rising inflection.
1. Although the fig-tree shall not blossom', neither shall fruit be in the vine'; the labor of the olive shall fail', and the fields shall yield no meat; the flocks shall be cut off from the fold', and there shall be no herd in the stalls'; yet will I rejoice in the Lord', I will joy in the God of my salvation'.
NOTE I. The ordinary direct address, not accompanied with strong emphasis, takes the rising inflection, on the principle of the pause of suspension.
1. Men', brethren', and fathers', hear ye my defense which I make now unto you.
Ye living flowers', that skirt the eternal frost!
NOTE II.-In some instances of a pause of suspension, the sense requires an intense falling inflection.
1. The prodigal, if he does not become a pauper, will, at least, have but little to bestow on others.
REMARK.-If the rising inflection is given on pauper, the sense would be perverted, and the passage made to mean, that, in order to be able to bestow on others, it is necessary that he should become a pauper.
Expressions of tenderness, as of grief, or kindness, commonly incline the voice to the rising inflection.
Mother',-I leave thy dwelling';
With grief my heart is swelling',
From thee',-from thee',-to sever'.
2. O my son Absalom! my son', my son Absalom'! Would God I had died for thee', Absalom', my son', my son'!
The Penultimate Pause, or the last but one, of a passage, is usually preceded by the rising inflection.
1. Diligence', industry', and proper improvement of time', are material duties of the young.
2. These through faith subdued kingdoms', wrought righteousness', obtained promises', stopped the mouths of lions', quenched the violence of fire', escaped the edge of the sword', out of weakness were made strong', waxed valiant in fight', turned to flight the armies of the aliens'.
REMARK.—The rising inflection is employed at the penultimate pause in order to promote variety, since the voice generally falls at the end of a sentence.
Expressions of strong emotion, as of anger or surprise, and also the language of authority and reproach, are expressed with the falling inflection.
1. On you', and on your CHILDREN', be the peril of the innocent blood which shall be shed this day'.
2. What a piece of workmanship is MAN! How noble in REASON! How infinite in FACULTIES!
3. O FOOLS! and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have written concerning me'!
4. HENCE, HOME', you idle creatures', GET YOU HOME',
YOU BLOCKS, YOU STONES', YOU WORSE THAN USELESS THINGS!
Slave, do thy office! Strike, as I struck the foe'!
5. Avaunt! and quit my sight! let the earth hide thee'! Thy bones are marrowless'; thou hast no speculation in thine eyes which thou dost glare' with.
An emphatic succession of particulars, and emphatic repetition, require the falling inflection.
Beware what earth calls happiness; BEWARE
2. A great mind', a great heart', a great orator', a great career, have been consigned to history'.
REMARK.-The stress of voice on each successive particular, or repetition, should gradually be increased as the subject advances.
The CIRCUMFLEX is a union of the two inflections on the same word, beginning either with the falling and ending with the rising, or with the rising and ending
me I shall go to
with the falling; as, If he goes to
The circumflex is mainly employed in the language of irony, and in expressing ideas implying some condition, either expressed or understood.
1. Yoŭ, a beardless youth, pretend to teach a British general. 2. What! shear a wolf? a prowling wolf?
My father's trade? ah, really, that's too bad!
My father's trade? Why, blockhead, are you măd?
He was a gentleman, I'd have you know.
4. What! confer a crown on the author of the public calamities?
5. But you are very wise men, and deeply learned in the truth; wě are weak, contemptible, mean persons.
6. They pretend they come to improve our stăte, enlarge our thoughts, and free us from error.
7. But youth, it seems, is not my only crime; I have been accused of acting a theatrical part.
8. And this man has become a god, and Cassius a wretched creature.
MODULATION implies those variations of the voice, heard in reading or speaking, which are prompted by the feelings and emotions that the subject inspires.
But when the blast of war blows in our ears,
Stiffen the sinews, summon up the blood,
Whose blood is fetched from fathers of war-proof!
Have, in these parts, from morn till even fought,
EXPRESSIVE OF COURAGE AND CHIVALROUS EXCITEMENT.
Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more,
REMARK. To read the foregoing example in one dull, monotonous tone of voice, without regard to the sentiment expressed, would render the passage extremely insipid and lifeless. But by a proper modulation of the voice, it infuses into the mind of the reader or hearer the most animating and exciting emotions.
The voice is modulated in three different ways. First, it is varied in PITCH; that is, from high to low tones, and the reverse. Secondly, it is varied in QUANTITY, or in loudness or volume of sound. Thirdly, it is varied in QUALITY, or in the kind of sound expressed.