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ACCENT AND EMPHASIS.
ACCENT and EMPHASIS both indicate some special stress of voice.
ACCENT is that stress of voice by which one syllable of a word is made more prominent than others; EMPHASIS is that stress of voice by which one or more words of a sentence are distinguished above the rest.
The accented syllable is sometimes designated thus: (1); as, com-mand'-ment.
NOTE I.—Words of more than two syllables generally have two or more of them accented.
The more forcible stress of voice, is called the Primary Accent; and the less forcible, the Secondary Accent.
EXAMPLES OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ACCENT.
In the following examples the Primary Aceent is designated by double accentual marks, thus:
Ed''-u-cate', ed'-u-ca''-tion, mul''-ti-ply', mul'-ti-pli-ca''-tion, sat-isfy', sat-is-fac''-tion, com'-pre-hend'', com'-pre-hen''-sion, rec'-om-mend". rec'-om-mend-all-tion, moʻʼ-ment-a'-ry, com-mu''-ni-cate', com'-pli-ment''al, in-dem'-ni-fi-call-tion, ex'-tem-po-ra''-ne-ous, coun'-ter-rev'-o-lu''-tiona-ry.
NOTE II.—The change of accent on the same word often changes its meaning.
col-league, a partner.
col-league', to unite with
con-duct', to lead.
des-cant', to comment.
NOTE III.-Emphatic words are often printed in Italics. When, however, different degrees of emphasis are to be denoted, the higher degrees are designated by the use of Capitals, LARGER or SMALLER, according to the degree of intensity.
1. Our motto shall be, our country, OUR WHOLE COUNTRY, and NOTHING BUT OUR COUNTRY.
2. Thou Child of Joy! SHOUT round me: let me HEAR thy shouts, thou happy Shepherd Boy!
Freedom calls you! quick, be ready,
Think of what your sires have done;
NOTE IV.-Emphasis, as before intimated, varies in degrees of intensity.
EXAMPLES OF INTENSIVE EMPHASIS.
He shook the fragment of his blade,
And shouted: "VICTORY!"
Charge, Chester, CHARGE! On, Stanley, ON!"
2. A month! O, for a single WEEK! I ask not for years', though an AGE were too little for the much I have to do.
Now for the FIGHT! now for the CANNON PEAL!
ONWARD! through blood, and toil, and cloud, and fire!
The VOLLEY'S ROLL, the ROCKET'S BLAZING SPIRE!
4. Hear, O HEAVENS! and give ear, O EARTH!
NOTE V.-Emphasis sometimes changes the seat of accent from its ordinary position.
There is a difference between possibility and prob'ability.
And behold, the angels of God as'cending and descending on it.
For this corruptible must put on in'corruption, and this mortal must
put on imʼmortality.
Does his conduct deserve ap'probation, or repʼrobation?
NOTE VI.-There are two kinds of Emphasis :-Absolute and Antithetic. ABSOLUTE EMPHASIS is used to designate the important words of a sentence, without any direct reference to other words.
EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE EMPHASIS.
Он, speak to passion's raging tide,
2. The UNION, it MUST and SHALL BE PRESERVED!
4. When my country shall take her place among the nations of the earth, THEN and not TILL then, let my epitaph be written. EMMETT.
5. If you are MEN, follow ME! STRIKE DOWN yon guard, and gain the mountain passes.
OH! shame on us, countrymen, SHAME on us ALL,
7. This doctrine never was received; it NEVER CAN, by any POSSIBILITY, BE RECEIVED; and, if admitted at ALL, it must be by THE TOTAL SUBVERSION OF LIBERTY!
8. Are you Christians, and, by upholding duelists, will you deluge the land with blood, and fill it with widows and orphans?
9. LIBERTY and UNION, NOW and Forever, one and INSEPARABLE.
10. Treason! cried the speaker; treason, TREASON, TREASON, reechoed from every part of the house.
Be we men,
And suffer such dishonor? MEN, and wash not
11. The war is inevitable,—and LET IT COME! I repeat it, Sir,-LET IT COME!
O SACRED FORMS! how proud you look!
14. I shall know but one country. The ends I aim at, shall be "My COUNTRY'S, my GOD's, and TRUTH'S."
NOTE VII.-ANTITHETIC EMPHASIS is that which is founded on the contrast of one word or clause with another.
EXAMPLES OF ANTITHETIC EMPHASIS.
1. The faults of others should always remind us of our own.
2. He desired to protect his friend, not to injure him
But yesterday, the word of Cæsar might
Have stood against the world; now lies he there,
4. A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches. 5. We can do nothing against the truth; but for the truth. BIBLE. 6. He that is slow to anger, is better than the mighty; and he that ruleth his spirit, than he that taketh a city.
NOTE VIII. The following examples contain two or more sets of Antitheses.
1. Just men are only free, the rest are slaves.
2. Beauty is like the flower of spring; virtue is like the stars of heaven.
Truth crushed to earth shall rise again,
The eternal years of God are hers;
4. A false balance is abomination to the Lord; but a just weight is his delight.
5. A friend can not be known in prosperity; and an enemy can not be hidden in adversity.
6. It is my living sentiment, and, by the blessing of God, it shall be my dying sentiment; INDEPENDENCE NOW, and INDEPENDENCE FOREVER.
7. We live in deeds, not years,—in thoughts, not breaths,-in feelings, not in figures on a dial. We should unt time by heart-throbs. He most lives, who THINKS THE MOST, FEELS THE NOBLEST,-ACTS THE BEST.
8 You have done the mischief, and I bear the blame.
9. The wise man is happy when he gains his own approbation; the fool, when he gains that of others.
10. We must hold them as we hold the rest of mankind-enemies in war,-in peace, friends.
NOTE IX.-The sense of a passage is varied by changing the place of the emphasis
1. Has James seen his brother to-day? No; but Charles has. 2. Has James seen his brother to-day? him.
3. Has James seen his brother to-day? 4. Has James seen his brother to-day? Bister.
No; but he has heard from
No; but he saw yours.
No: but he has seen his
5. Has James seen his brother to-day? No; but he saw him yesterday.
REMARK. To determine the emphatic words of a sentence, as well as the degree and kind of emphasis to be employed, the reader must be governed wholly by the sentiment to be expressed. The idea is sometimes entertained that emphasis consists merely in loudness of tone. But it should be borne in mind, that the most intense emphasis may often be effectively expressed, even by a whisper.
INFLECTIONS are turns or slides of the voice, made in reading or speaking; as, Will you go to New
All the various sounds of the human voice may be comprehended under the general appellation of tones. The principal modifications of these tones are the MONOTONE, the RISING INFLECTION, the FALLING INFLECTION, and the CIRCUMFLEX.