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For he that can by reason prove any thing to me makes his knowledge mine, because by the same reason I am able to prove it to another: but if twenty men should swear to me they saw such a thing, which before I did not believe, it is true I should alter my opinion, not because there appeared any greater likelihood of the thing, but because it was unlikely that so many men should lie; and if I should go about to make others of the same opinion, I could not do it by telling them I knew it, or I saw it; but all I could say were, I did believe, because such and such men told me they saw it. So in the comfort a man takes of himself (which grows out of the consideration of how much itself deserves to be beloved) a virtuous wise fellow will take enough comfort and joy in himself, though by misfortune he is troubled to carry about with him the world's ill opinion, by discoursing that he is free from those slanders that are laid upon him, and that he hath those sufficiencies and virtues which others deny. And on the contrary side, he without deserving it (having the good fortune to be esteemed and honoured) will easily be drawn to have a good opinion of himself; as, out of modesty, submitting his own reason to the testimony of many witnesses.

Ambition in itself is no fault, but the most natural commendation of the soul, as beauty is of the body. It is in men, as beauty is in women. to be naturally exceedingly handsome is the greatest commendation of the sex, and that for which they most desire to be commended; so that ambition, by. which men desire honour the natural way (which consists in doing honourable and good acts) is the root of the most perfect commendation, that a moral.

For as

man is capable of. Those only offend in their am. bition, who out of the earthliness of their minds dare not aspire to that true honour, which is the estimation of a man, being as it were the temple wherein virtue is enshrined; and therefore settle their minds only upon attaining titles and power, which at the first were, or at least should be, the mark whereby to distinguish men according to the rate of their virtues and sufficiencies. It is true, that power is a brave addition to a worthy man: but a fool or a knave, that is powerful, hath (according to the degree of his power) just that advantage of a virtuous prudent man, that Adam before he fell had of the angels, an ability to do more ill.

* As for titles (which at first were the marks of power, and the rewards of virtue) they are now, according to their name, but like titles of books, which for the most part the more glorious things they promise, let a man narrowly peruse them over, the less substance he shall find in them; and the wooden lord is like the log, that Jupiter gave the frogs to be their king: it makes a great noise, it prepares an expectation of great matters, but when they once perceived it unactive, and senselessly lying still, the wiser sort of frogs began to despise it, and (in fine) every young frogling presumed to leap up and down

upon it.

• Some few there are, who (lest the species of our ancient worthy lords should be lost) do preserve in themselves the will and desire, since they want the means, to do brave and worthy acts. And therefore I say, let a man by doing worthy acts deserve honour; and though he do not attain it, yet he is much a happier man than he that gets it without desert. For such a man is before hand with reputation; and the world still owes him that honour, which his deserts cry for, and it hath not paid. Whereas that man, that hath a great reputation without deserving it, is behind hand with the world; and his honour is but lent, not paid : and when the world comes to take account of its applause, and finds his title of merit (by which he pretends to it) weak and broken, it will recall it's approbation, and leave him by so much the more a notorious bankrupt in his good name, by how much the estimation of his wealth that way was the greater.

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Of Fortitude.

* For a man to be completely happy, there is required the perfection of all moral virtues, and yet this is not enough. For virtues do rather banish misfortune, and but show us joy, than establish felicity: which is not only an utter alienation from all affliction, but an absolute fulness of joy. And since the soul of man is infinitely more excellent than every thing else it can meet withal in this world, nothing upon earth can satisfy it, but in the enjoying of the greatest abundance of all the delights, that the most nimble-witted man can frame to himself; for that his soul will still have a farther desire, as unsatisfied with that it enjoys. Therefore, the perfection of happiness consists in the love of God, which is only able to fill up all the corners of the soul with the most perfect joy; and consequently to fix all it's desires upon those celestial joys that shall never be taken from it. But this, as it cannot be obtained by discourse, but by unfeigned prayer and

the assistance and illumination of God's grace, so it is not my purpose to prick at it. And for that part of felicity which is attained to by moral virtue, I find that every virtue gives a man perfection in some kind, and a degree of felicity too: viz. Honesty, gives a man a good report; Justice, estimation and authority; Prudence, respect and confidence; Courtesy and Liberality, affection and a kind of dominion over other men; Temperance, health ; Fortitude, a quiet mind not to be moved by any adversity, and a confidence not to be circumvented by any danger. So that all other Virtues give a man but an outward happiness, as receiving their reward from others; only Temperance doth pretend to make the body a stranger to pain, both in taking from it the occasion of diseases, and making the outward inconveniences of want, as hunger and cold, if not delightful, at least sufferable.'

122

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.*

(1545–1596.]

THIS celebrated navigator was the son of Edmund Drake a mariner, † and was born at a village near Tavistock in Devonshire, in the year 1545. He was the eldest of twelve brothers; and the father being encumbered by so large a family, Captain Hawkins, his mother's relation, kindly took him under his patronage, and gave

him an education suitable to the sea-service. By his interest Drake was, at the age of eighteen, appointed purser of a ship trading to the Bay of Biscay. At twenty, he made a voyage to Guinea : and at twenty-two, became Captain of the Judith ; and in that capacity visited the harbour of St. John de Ulloa, in the gulf of Mexico, where he behaved with great gallantry in the glorious action {

* AUTHORITIES. Campbell's Lives of the Admirals ; Johnson's Life of Drake ; Biographia Britannica; and Rapin's History of England.

† “ A clergyman,” says Johnson, “ who being inclined to the doctrine of the Protestants, at that time much opposed by Henry VIII., was obliged to fly from his place of residence into Kent for refuge from the persecution raised against him, and those of the same opinion, by the law of the Six Articles.”

| The Viceroy of Mexico, contrary to his stipulation with Hawkins, and in violation of the peace between Spain and Eng.

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