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The Age we live in.
makes all his "round coals square." Now we find " his own Farrier"—You have" money lent" in every street, and loads of useful paper hand at every corner. more humane age never existed. In England we have a Society devoted entirely to it, and in Scotland we have a Professor of Humanity. Our charity may be seen in large letters every where, and not sneaking at home, as it did with our ancestors. Vice, on the contrary, dares not rear its crest; for we have a self-dubbed knight-errant society expressly to suppress it. And lastly, with regard to sympathy, or feeling, the antients were sadly ignorant. Men knew a little of it, and the doctrine of Pythag oras extended it to the brute creation, but there, poor heathens they stopt. Not so with the Christian world-we have " pathetic tables!"
UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW.
The feelings which the relation of master and scholar calls forth, are amongst the finest which can possibly be cherished. If the conduct of the master has been of that affectionate and interested kind, which is calculated to win the affections of his scholars, no length of time or distance of place, can deaden the early impressions which it produces. And it is remarkable that the conduct, and not the abilities, of a professor produces the most lasting impressions. We remember even to old age, an instance of warm-heartedness, while we forget in a short time the finest speculation. When the master is severe or ungenerous in his temper, the students are disposed to thwart his plans, and even to neglect his instructions. But if there is a kindliness in all he says or does, the effect is very opposite. The students are anxious to obey him, and execute all their tasks with double alacrity. Long after they have left his class, they look back with pleasure on the exercises, by which he cal led forth and directed their powers. And when the subjects, perhaps even the nature of these exercises are forgotten, the warmth, the eagerness, and the little peculiarities of manner for which
On the University of Glasgow-Logie Class.
he was distinguished, are all fondly treasured up, and afford matter for the most delightful recollection.
These observations will not be considered impertinent to an essay, of which the Logic Class in Glasgow College is the subject. We know of no teacher who has more constantly or more deservedly, or for a longer period, been the object of popular fayour, than the venerable individual who presides in that class. How different soever the opinions respecting his philosophy may be, there is but one opinion respecting the man. Throughout the whole island, and his scholars are to be found in every corner of it, his virtues are mentioned with reverence. The Argonautic eye of malice itself has never discovered a spot in his conduct, nor has the voice of detraction for once been raised to blacken his fair and well-earned fame. He has laboured for nearly half a century in his honourable calling, and now that he is sinking fast into the vale of years, he can with much complacency look back on the toils of his long and useful life. His fame may not rest on the same basis, with that of Reid and Hutchinson, but it is founded on the most solid of all foundations, that of public utility. To other teachers may belong the credit of ably instructing their scholars in their particular department, but Mr. Jardine has the credit of preparing the mind for every pursuit, while he is at the same time ostensibly engaged only in teaching the elements of Pneumatology. "Had I a dozen sons (said a very acute clergyman of our neighbourhood) and wished each of them to learn a separate profession, they should all begin with Mr. Jardine, for I know of no man who is better able to call forth the powers and put them in that particular state of preparation, in which they ought to be, when about to commence a new study."
Before entering the Logic class, the majority of students are ignorant of its business, many of them do not even know the meaning of its name. Up to this date, they have been employed in studying the works of other minds, now they must attend to the operations of their own. Their researches have been chiefly confined to the mere words of language, now they must attend to its philosophy. Hitherto every difficulty has been solved by the 'rule and the dictionary, but now neither rule nor dictionary can evolve to them the processes of thought. All their dealings have been with something palpable and distinct but now the object of their inquiries is of all others the most impalpable and
On the University of Glasgow-Logic Class.
obscure. In short there is not the most distant affinity between their former studies and those in which they are now to engage. Hence the difficulty and importance of the professor's situation. He cannot, like the schoolmaster, compel his students to exertion, by prescribing a certain length of task, and a certain mode of executing it, for he cannot compel them to think. He may indeed prescribe tasks, and advise as to the mode of performing them, he may even inflict a penalty in case of non performance, but he cannot by compulsory means insure any thing like excellence. While on the contrary if he is too easy, and too willing to invite rather than enforce, the students will to a certainty avail themselves of his facility. They will produce exercises got up for a purpose without much attention to their requisites. If, however, the manner of the professor is neither harsh nor feeble, but winning, and at the same time firm, the chance is that his students will perform all that he can require. Now these are, in our humble opinion, the very characteristics of Mr. Jardine's manner-and it is to his manner chiefly that we must look for the secret of his success in teaching; since with all our respect for his talents, we cannot suppose that he is in any way more eminently gifted than many of his cotemporaries, whose success in the same way has been far less. In ascribing so much to mere manner we would not be understood as alluding to natural temperament only, for Mr. Jardine's manner is unquestionably the product of much sound sense as well as of an excellent disposition.
The regulations of the class too, contribute in no small degree to the success of his instructions. We presume it will be unnecessary to enter at length into a detail of these, but we may state generally that there is no lecture delivered on which the students are not minutely examined, nor are there many subjects discussed on which they are not required to produce an essay. By this simple and admirable plan the professor and students exactly keep pace with each other. The professor is able to ascertain on what particulars he has not been sufficiently explicit, and to afford those explanations of which he observes the students to stand in need. The students again strive to comprehend all the subjects of the lecture, that they may be prepared for the examination, and if from want of perspicuity or other defect in the lecture, they have not been able to comprehend its reasonings, there is now an opportunity of rectifying
On the Quiversity of Glasgow-Logic Cinss.
the matter, by attending to the explanations given in the course of examination.
As it is impossible to hear the essay of every student, the method adopted by the professor, to inform himself whether the whole class has performed the task, is this. He calls upon all those who are not provided with an essay to stand up. If they can assign a good reason for their failure, no fine is imposed, but if they cannot they are fined in a small sum. Those who sit still are understood to declare upon their honour that they have prepared the essay. But if in the course of examination any one is found unprepared, and not to have stood up, he is severely fined, and considered to have violated his word of honour. This circumstance seldom happens. Hence we may conclude that the task is performed by all the students, though per haps no more than half a dozen may have an opportunity of reading each day. By such little pieces of management as these, sggested by long experience and founded on views of obvious expediency, the professor is enabled to exercise a control over his class, which has all the efficacy without the severity of personal chastisement.
There is still another point of view in which the address of the professor is very visible; we mean in adapting his lectures to the progress of his scholars. At first they are simple and calculated rather to arrest the attention, than to convey much information respecting the proper business of the class. By degrees they become more abstract, till the student insensibly finds himself diving deep into the mysteries of taste and touchi, of senses internal and external. The essays, like the lectures, are very progressive in their degrees of difficulty. In the outset, they are merely exercises of memory, by and by, they are more remotely connected with the lecture, till at last, the student is required to choose his own subject, and furnish his own illustra· tions. Of this it would be difficult to give examples. Those who have studied under Mr. Jardine need none, and those who have not, must be content with our authority for the fact
The object of the course, as stated in the Logic Compend is threefold. Part 1st, relates to the improvement of the powers of knowledge. Part 2d, to the improvement of the powers of taste. Part 3d, to the powers of communication. This arrangement, s far as we are capable of judging, is very judicious. Respecting the subdivisions there is room for considerable difference of
On the University of Glasgow-Logic Class.
opinion, and indeed, if we recollect rightly, Mr. Mylne's view of the intellectual powers, is entirely different. Into the controversy on this subject we are ne ther willing nor qualified to enter.
It is the business of the Logic Professor to train the mind to exercises of thinking, and we are of opinion, with great submission, that the more closely the subjects of thought are connected with the business of life, the better for the thinker. If this opinion be well founded, it may fairly be asked, whether the subjects on which the students of Logic are called to exercise their powers, are those exclusively, to which their attention should be confined at this stage of their progress? It is without question, that a knowledge of metaphysics, should constitute an important part of a liberal education, but it is not equally clear that they deserve all the time and attention, which is usually bestowed on this branch of study. A class, similar to that which was commenced by a Mr. Rennie sometime ago (we believe under the patronage of Mr. Jardine) and upon the same principles, would be productive of more good, than even the present establishment, well managed as it is. If this opinion is ill founded, it may be some excuse for our stating it in this place, that it is frequently broached, and seriously entertained by persons, for whose superior judgment we have the highest regard.
. Mr. Jardine lately published an octavo volume, containing an outline of his course—a work which is exceedingly characteristic of its author. The public journals have been lavish in his praise, and we for our part have certainly no wish to dissent from their opinion. It was our intention to have given copious extracts from it, but we find that we cannot afford room for their insertion, consistently with our plan of introducing as great a variety of subjects into our number as possible.
Manse of Bogton, November, 1818.