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out, in fact, the principle contended for in these pages, but adapts it to domestic service instead of scholastic employment. Thus 40 girls are instructed in the parochial school, by public election, from 8 to 12 years of age.
They are next drafted into the Servants' Training Institution, which is conducted on a collegiate plan, much as at Whiteland's; and during four years from 12 to 16, collegiate influence succeeds to the routine of early school instruction.
They then take situations as domestic servants; but the benevolent founder, not satisfied with this end to his labours, has added a yearly premium of £100, as the marriage portion of those who shall have completed a given number of years of service with credit, and made a prudent choice.
Thus childhood, girlhood, and womanhood were all objects of specific provision, not out of a rich man's abundance, but by a tradesman in moderate circumstances, who declares in his will that he had practised a life of self-deninl, anul abstained from marriage himself, in order to provide for his relations, and at the same time endow this institution, which, during his life-time, he had established and supported.*
Thus was an example set by an obscure tradesman of that collegiate training which can alone produce real education, and without which day schools, especially in large towns, must end in disappointment.
Ertracts from Charges.
THE HEART OF THE PEOPLE IS STILL WITH THE CHURCH.
This return, however, will establish two points: first, the strong-hold which the church still has upon the population, even in these over-peopled districts ; where it is of course the weakest ; and next, the little that is done by all against the ever-pressing march of ignorance and evil. Sin, we know, and sorrow keep no holydays; temptation never slumbers ; day and night, summer and winter, hour by hour, yea, almost minute by minute, the swelling tide of population and of vice is rising and gaining on us. In these great crowds, as of old, in fastnesses and dens, are gathered the outcasts of society and the neglected by the church, to rise one day in their lawless strength, and sweep all before them, if in time we have not trained them to better things; and so saved themselves and all around them.
From the country districts my returns are naturally more complete. In 110 parishes or districts, I find 216 daily schools—some of them still taught by dames-connected with the church and under clerical inspection. In these schools are now instructed 8,696 children. In the same district are 14 daily schools maintained by Dissenters, containing altogether 288 scholars. Now the population of this district, as given by the census of 1841, amounts to 93,626. Of this number three-twentieths, or between one-sixth and one-seventh, should, on the best calculation, be under training in the public elementary schools. Taking, therefore, the lowest estimate, 13,375 children ought to be receiving education in this district ; whilst, in point of fact, only 8,984, or only two-thirds of the whole rising population, are even professedly instructed.
Here, then, we come to much the same results as those we reached before. As far as it concerns the question of the Church or Dissenters, a proportion of the youth so great* as to forbid comparison are under our instruction. The heart of this people still
, thank God, is ours. From a Charge by the Ven. Samuel Wilberforce, Archdeacon of Surrey.
* Vid. Appendix, No. 5.
+ As 8,696 to 288.
large. To say nothing now of the upper ranks, which she exclusively trained, the middle and poorer classes were at the beginning of the last century widely receiving, in dame, village, and grammar schools, a certain amount of direct instruction.* Nor will this, with all its admitted imperfections and omissions, be utterly contemned by any who has considered duly what was the character, which, with other concurrent influences it formed in the peasanty of England. Further, through the grammar schools, and the endowments at the universities connected with them, such of the children of the poor as possessed superior capacities found not unfrequently an open road to the highest intellectual training. But with this state of things the changes of our social life during the last hundred years have been continually interfering. From the wholesome influence of much incidental education, these changes have by degrees shut out the poor: from the grammar schools and their connected scholarslips they have to a great extent become excluded ; whilst the vast increase of population in certain localities, with no corresponding increase of the machinery of the church, separated from her care large masses both of children and adults.
Exactly at this time there arose amongst us a feverish thirst for the spread of general imformation; whilst from various causes the condition of the poor attracted new attention. Hence arose in the first years of this century a widely spread movement towards providing for them more general education. But it soon appeared that there was little hope of any agreement as to what should form that education. In the judgment of an active and powerful body, the mere imparting to the poor the lowest rudiments of intellectual training seemed to be the panacea for their wants. The system of mutual instruction, brought at this moment to perfection, promised unlimited results. “One teacher," writes their most distinguished leader in 1811,4“ can now instruct 1,200" nay, "any number of children,” “preserving the most perfect state of discipline, and giving them all the education they required, “at a cost of only 3s. 6d.
per head per annum.” So complete, moreover, were to be the “moral effects of this new system, that crime was to disappear; for “of the 7,000 children so instructed, not one,” it was alleged,“ had been charged with any criminal offence in any court of justice:” whilst to commend it to all, it was proclaimed, that " no one child had been made a proselyte to peculiar religious opinions ;” and to enhance its value it was added, that hitherto “ the National Church had done nothing towards the education of youth,” except what incidentally attended the direct religious instruction given by the clergy.
Such opinions, however, could not be universal ; and the rise of the National Society in 1812, for the avowed purpose of connecting new and more general plans for the instruction of the poor with the parochial arrangements of the church, was the practical result of disagreement with them.
From 1812 to 1816 the two systems were maintained, each by its own supporters, on funds raised wholly by voluntary subscriptions. But in this last year the question was brought before parliament; and after four years of inquiry, discussion, and preparation, a plan was proposed by Mr. (now Lord) Brougham for a system of national education. Upon his calculations, before the year 1803 only one-twenty-first part of the whole population of the kingdom was placed in the way of receiving education ; and though the general average
“In little more than ten years after the formation of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (A.D. 1698), nearly 5000 children were in the course of education in London and its vicinity. In 1750 upwards of 16,000 charity-schools had been erected in England and Wales, in which about 40,000 children were receiv. ing Christian Instruction.”—Letter of the Rev. R. Burgess to Sir James Graham on National Exlucation, p. 6.
+ Edinburgh Review, Nov. 1811.
any human power for the successful result of their exertions. They have had, indeed, in the course of the society's progress, many gratifying proots of a considerable measure of success. For these they desire to be thankful to Him " from whom every good and perfect gift descendeth,” and they would take them as an intimation of enlarged prosperity in time to come, so long as the society continues faithíul in the discharge of its sacred duty; but even were such indications of success less manifest, they feel that they ought not to allow themselves to cherish a desponding spirit; they know that the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth ;-they believe that He has purposes of good in store for His church; and that He will, in His own appointed time, and by His own selected means, work these purposes into full effect; and therefore, even when the course of human affairs may appear the most unpromising, they desire to keep in continual remembrance, that Ile can accomplish Ais own will in opposition to human plans, and advance, by means apparently the most incompetent, any cause which is calculated to promote His own glory, and the welfare
The first circumstance to which your committee would invite your attention, is the union which has taken place between the London Hibernian and the Church Education Societies.
As you were informed in the last report, that the preliminaries to this union had been already agreed upon between the two committees, and as a general statement was then made of the nature of the arrangement, it only remains on the present occasion to acquaint you that the junction was formally effected at a special general meeting of the London Hibernian Society, held in London on the 25th day of April, 18-13, and to auld some circumstances of detail connected with the carrying out of the arrangement.
At the time of this union, there were in connection with the London Hibernian Society 474 schools, of which not more than 14 were under the superintendence of ministers of dissenting communions. Of these schools 302 have been formally transferred to your charge--their respective patrons having entered into an engagement, that they shall in future be conducted in strict conformity with the requirements of your fundamental laws;
committee have on their part engaged, to apply the funds remitted to them by the London Hibernian committee, as far as they will go, in the first instance, in giving to these schools, so long as they continue to deserve it, the same amount of teacher's stipend, as also of books and school requisites, that they have hitherto received from the London Hibernian Society. In addition to to the above, 23 schools under the Ladies' Hibernian School Society, have also been put into connection
The committee have already made grants of books to these schools to the value of £130. Os. 4}d.; but they regret that in consequence of not having yet received any remittances from the committee in London, they have not been able to award the usual gratuities to deserving teachers, and that they have been compelled, for the same reason, to discontinue their grants of books and school requisites. They trust, however, that with respect to both these particulars, they will before long be in a position to act in a manner inore accordant with their wishes; they rely upon the exertions which are being made by the London committee for the collection of funds, and hope that they will in a short time be able to supply your committee with sutlicient means to continue the usual aid to the transferred schools.
It is not unnatural that some feeling of disappointment should be experienced by the patrons and teachers of schools, on finding the assistance which they have been in the habit of receiving from the London Hibernian Society, for the present suspended ; and your committee are not without apprehension, that such persons may attribute this circumstance to the junction of the two societies as its cause; but a moment's reflection will show that any such inference