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different orders of ministers there are in the church-ask them even the names of their own godfathers and godmothers, or any question connected with the peculiar doctrine or discipline of our church as distinguished from those of any sect of dissenters in their neighbourhood—and you will in many cases leave the school-room fully convinced, that the children have not been instructed by a churchman who understood and loved and honoured the church of his fathers; that they are sent out into life with a knowledge perhaps of the history contained in the bible, and of the great doctrines of our justification by the blood of Christ, and of our sanctification through the power of the Spirit, but with no suited knowledge given to them, no fit warning pressed upon them to prevent their falling into those two sins to which they will be as much exposed as to covetousness, or drunkenness, or stealing, or lying, namely, the sins of heresy and schism. Let it not be said that if they have a knowledge of their bibles, it is sufficient to lead them into all truth, or at least that it is all that man can give to lead them into the right path ; we do not say this with respect to any other sin to which we know a child is likely to be exposed. We draw their attention to the passages of scripture declaring God's wrath against such sins; we give them little histories to read, in which the lamentable consequences of such sins are made to appear; we point out to them the effects of such sins upon the happiness of others who commit them. It is, perhaps, against the sins of heresy and schism alone that the pious schoolmaster has not warned his children. What has been the consequence, let every town and village and hamlet of England tell. Read it in every red brick dissenting chapel which rises by the road side as you pass along the way. The congregations of these chapels were all for the most part brought up in our church schools. Where is our remedy? We must have churchmen, intelligent and attached churchmen as our schoolmasters for the lower classes, as we have intelligent and attached churchmen as our schoolmasters for the higher classes of our society. There must be no keeping back important doctrines, no paring down our faith to catch the pence of the children of dissenters.
But if we are to have churchmen as our masters, how are their principles and knowledge to be ascertained ? By lay committees, by the patrons of the school, Socinians or infidels, dissenters or churchmen, just as they happen to be? No, Sir, our church has foreseen the difficulty, and has directed that no one should be a schoolmaster without the bishop's license; it is the bishop who is to ascertain the fitness of the master. On this point the wish of our church is clearly expressed, as well as that no one else should receive the bishop's license to teach, if the curate of the parish be willing to undertake the office of schoolmaster. When, therefore, I desire to see our schoolmasters both licensed and ordained by our bishops, I am standing in the old path of our church, and with her I fully believe, that a greater blessing will accompany the religious teaching of ordained ministers than of merely licensed laymen, and that is well that those to whom so important a charge is given as that of feeding the lambs of the Saviour's fold with the sincere milk of the word, should be bound to the church by the strongest ties which can bind them, even the solemn vows of ordination.
In my former communication, Sir, I urged the expediency of ordaining a considerable number of our schoolmasters, on the ground that our clergy were not equal to their present duties, much less to enter upon the widening fields of missionary labour, both at home and abroad. I pointed out, that without help, and help of a less expensive kind then they can at present obtain, our incumbents cannot bring home the teaching of our church to every individual in their populous and often far scattered parishes. I remarked upon the expense of obtaining an university degree, and observed that, by requiring such a degree in candidates for ordination, the bishops rendered it essential that the clergy should in most cases have some private fortune; for the average remuneration of a curate and that of many incumbents, does not amount to the annuity which might have been purchased for them with the sum expended on their education; and it is to be remembered, that while the curate's annuity is in many cases as hardly earned as the wages of
any labourer for his daily bread, it ceases not only on death, but when sickness or age comes on. I also endeavoured to dra attention to the fact, that those classes from which our ordained teachers are usually taken, have an advantage in the social and familiar intercourse of clergy taken from their own ranks, which the lower classes have not. I remarked also, that both the practice of the Roman church, and the influence which the clergy of that church obtain over the masses, strongly bear out the opinion, that the ordained teachers of our church should be selected from the lower as well as the higher ranks of our people. It has been objected, that there are at present many unemployed clergy, and that no addition therefore can be needed to their numbers. If it be so, I confess I am mistaken; but I cannot learn, Sir, where these idle clergy are to be found, except they be those already broken down by over. work. It has been objected, that my calculations as to university expenses are incorrect, and that there is not that large money qualification enforced by our bishops in all candidates for holy orders which I represent. With every wish to arrive at the truth in this matter, I find it very difficult to ascertain the average expenses, which must be incurred in the preparation for an honourable university course, and during the course itself. I gave the expenses of my friends; but without disputing as to figures, any curate I believe will find, if he will take the trouble to make the calculation what his own education has cost from the time he first went to school till the day he paid his fees to the bishop's registrar, that if the sum which has been expended in preparing bim for the clerical office had been expended in the purchase of an annuity, which should not only cease at his death, but during illness or any other reason in which he might be incapable of active employment, he would at the present moment be in the receipt of a much larger income than he derives from his profession. Any one with the knowledge of his own expenses and an annuity society's tables by his side, can judge whether I am right or wrong. But, Sir, the college tutor, who in the grave and sober retirement of his study has drawn up for your pages a most exact analysis of what ought to be the expenses of one in statu pupillari, will perhaps forgive me for saying, that I consider he has fallen into the error of one of his predecessors of historic may remain at school until the age of 14, as well as for the advantage of large schools generally, where there is but one master or mistress, to contribute towards the maintenance of a certain number of pupil teachers; and thus to raise up a succession of masters and mistresses for national and other schools out of the schools in union with the London Diocesan Board of Education.
The board has for some time had this measure in contemplation, hoping that considerable improvements may be made in some of the largest schools and in the poorest districts, The selecting one or more of the best scholars in a national school, and making them assistants in teaching the lower classes, has been very successful in several instances; but in most cases where such assistance is especially needed, the managers of the schools find considerable difficulty in raising the necessary funds.
The board is now prepared to receive applications on behalf of either boys or girls, of the age of 14, who are willing to submit to an examination in which the age, character, and attainments of the candidates, will be taken into account, as well as the necessity of the school or district where they may be placed.
The candidates approved as pupil teachers will be placed on the books of the board for two years, with the privilege of being continued for a third year,
if circumstances, in the judgment of the board, appear to recommend it, receiving in weekly payments as follows:
Boys.-For the first year, £10; for the second year, £13; for the third Girls. For the first year, £9; for the second year, £12; for the third
At the end of two years it is proposed to elect out of the whole number of pupil teachers, three males and three females, to be nominated free of expense, to some of the National Society or Diocesan Training Schools.
Applications may be addressed to the honorary secretary, 79, Pall Mall, stating the name, age, and qualification of the candidate, and of the schools from which they come.
None but schools in union with a Diocesan Board will be allowed to furnish candidates.
At a meeting of the committee of management of the London Diocesan Board of Education, held 11th March, 1844, it was resolved :
“That the statements and plan for raising up pupil teachers now read, he adopted, and that the same be printed and circulated among the metropolitan clergy."
(Signed) C. J. LONDON, President. 79, Pall Mall, 11th March, 1844.
RICHARD BURGEss, Hon. Sec.
OBJECTS OF THE BOARD.
1. To form a medium of communication and mutual suggestions between the clergy and other persons of the diocese interested in the cause of religious and general education in accordance with the doctrines and discipline of the church of England.
2. To collect and circulate information as to the state of education in the diocese, and the obstacles which impede its progress or efficiency.
3. To take measures for the extension and improvement of education in connection with the church of England throughout the diocese.
4. To bring into union with itself as many as possible of the schools existing in the diocese, on the terms adopted by the National Society.
5. To establish an effectual system of inspection and periodical examination of the schools in union with the board, with the concurrence of the managers of such schools, and under the sanction of the bishop.
Terms upon which Schools will be taken into union with the Board :
1.-FOR PAROCHIAL AND NATIONAL SCHOOLS. 1. The children are to be instructed in the holy scriptures, and in the liturgy and catechism of the established church.
2. With respect to such instruction, the schools are to be subject to the superintendence of the parochial clergy.
3. The children are to be regularly assembled for the purpose of attending divine service in the parish church or other place of worship under the establishment, unless such reason be assigned for their non-attendance as is satisfactory to the managers of the school.
4. The masters and the mistresses are to be members of the church of England.
5. In case any difference should arise between the parochial clergy and the managers of the schools, with reference to the preceding rules, respecting the religious instruction of the scholars, or any regulation connected therewith, an appeal is to made to the bishop of the diocese, whose decision is to be final. N. B.—The following Form of Certificate to be used in the case of Infant
Schools :We, the undersigned, (being desirous of establishing, fc.) an infant school, for the benefit of the poor of (the parish of)
do hereby certify that the education in such school is to be conducted on the principles of the established church, and by masters or mistresses who are members of the same ;—and we further declare, that we shall be ready to report upon the state and progress of the school, from time to time, in the usual manner.
II.-F Middle or commercial schools may be received into connection with the board, upon a declaration from the proprietors or managers, that religious instruction in conformity with the doctrine and discipline of the established church shall be given therein, and that the schools will be open to the occasional visitation of the parochial clergy. Form of a Declaration for Parties who desire their School or Schools to be
taken into union. Sir,-Having received your circular explanatory of the objects of the London Diocesan Board of Education, I have to request that my school, known by the name of
may be considered in union with the board.
I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, To the Secretary of the London
Diocesan Board of Education.
-FOR MIDDLE OR COMMERCIAL SCHOOLS.
of England, and want assistance to support them at the university, togethel with letters testimonial of their religious and moral character.
Vacant Scholarships at Orford. There will be an election of two scholars on Mrs. Eaton's Foundation, in Worcester College, on the 22nd of June next. Candidates must deliver to the provost, on or before the 18th of June, a certificate signed by the ministers of their respective parishes, and by two or more respectable inhabitants of the same, that they are sons of clergymen of the church
King's College, Cambridge.- Mr. Johnson has just gained the Craven scholarship. Within the past six years five gentlemen of the same college have ob. tained the university scholarship. This
name, wto bad with the most accurate precision arranged the cranks and cylinders, the wheels and planes of a most complicated machine, every part was most nicely acjusted upon the newest and most approred principles of the day, the equations had been worked out with the greatest care; and as Mr. — put his papers into the drawer without a sirgle scratch or biot upon them, he was a proud man that day. But when the diferent parts of his machine had been made according to his directions and were placed together, and the motive power applied, to Mr. — 's utter dismay, not a cog would move, not a wheel would stir—the whole machine was an entire failure. He turned in dire distress to his papers; he looked through all his workings again and again, bat not one fiaw could be find, not one mistake could he discover. He turned again to his machine—he declared it must work; that it was in fact absurd, a mathematical impossibility, for it to stand still; but, unhappily, the wheels did not feel their absurd situation, and remained motionless. The good man, Sir, so fame reported in the schools of Oxford, had forgotten to make any allowance either for the friction of his wheels, or for the resistance of the air. The machine looked beautifully correct on his papers; but it was sadly wanting when he attempted to set it agoing. So in those accurate calculations of the expenses of under-graduates which have been, and I suppose will be put forth from time to time, there is no allowance made for the practical working, the friction of the plan sketched out. The expenses inserted may be the only necessary expenses in the opinion of grave tutors who have drowned in coilegiate tea the remembrance of more youthful days, and tamed down once buoyant spirits by the daily " constitutional.” But surely a young man going to the university, must be considered to go there, not with the wisdom of a college tutor, but with such a scanty stock of prudence as under-graduates usually possess. There are some, too, eren of older years, who would not cut off from the expenses of the university, the wine party and the breakfast, the row to Newnham and the happy gathering there, the game at Magdalen or Bullington, and the even. ing at the Union. These things, and such things as these, may seem quite needless luxuries to a college tutor, and to be most unjustifiably mentioned in connection with the expenses of an university education. Perhaps such things are not on the banks of Cam; but I confess I look back with almost as grateful recollection to these needless and unjustifiable luxuries, as to the graver duties of the lecture-room and schools. Take away the manly healthy amusements from our universities; take away the social parties, and the clash of mind with mind in friendly cheerful intercourse ; let the education be that alone which the senior can give to the junior, and not partake of that which the young can give the young : take away the formation of those friendships which shall endure as long as life endure, and leave merely the cap and gown, the lecture, and hall, and chapel, and the university will certainly be a much cheaper place than I found it; but it will not be what I found it, and love to remember it, and ever wish it to be. They who go to the university, and do not mix in the society of their contemporaries, cannot, in my opinion, receive the full benefits of a college life. Let me not appear to be any advocate for extravagance, and let each