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Transmissive Religion, (Practical Theology, Vol. I pp. 214, 40) will have the advantage of forming or regulating their judgment, by the light arising from the consent of two such minds.* Upon the principles of education, above indicated, Mr. Davison and the Bishop were much interested by the plan, then in its infancy, of establishing Infant schoolst, in which, while the acquirement of mere knowledge necessarily formed a very subordinate consideration, there must exist, in the ductility and malleableness of the materials, the best and happiest opportunities for the exercise of discipline and training.–Foster's Life of Bishop Jebb, Vol. pp. 254—256.
ON THE ADVANTAGES OF CLOTHING A LIMITED NUMBER OF CHILDREN IN A
PAROCHIAL SCHOOL. By the union of older establishments for clothing as well as teaching a limited number, with schools formed on a more comprehensive plan, you may increase in a very high degree the utility of both. That superior aid which is now imparted to a select number, may thus be made the incentive to industry, obedience, and good conduct in all; and while on the one hand a large field is opened for selection in making these appointments (so that the choice need never fall upon undeserving objects), so on the other, these partial rewards, distributed on such a principle, and soon known to be so distributed, must needs re-act beneficially and powerfully upon the whole system, infusing a spirit of honest emulation, lightening the toil of duty, and commanding respect even from those who fail of obtaining the distinction. It has often been observed, that confined charities are acts of favour only to individuals, not benefits conferred upon the public at large. By the union now recommended, and which I know has been adopted in many places with signal success, advancement is made to go hand in hand with merit, and the stream of private benevolence is turned into the channel of public good.
It is not easy to calculate the full extent of such an advantage; for not only is the deserving child helped and befriended, he is honoured at the same time. His parents and relations partake in the joy. It is no longer the badge of dependence, but the proof of good character; a testimony that will plead in his behalf under all ditficulties, and will assist all his future endeavours throughout life.—Dr. Copleston, Bishop of Llandaff. Sermon at St. Paul's, 1829.
EDUCATION IN THE MANUFACTURING AND MINING DISTRICTS. A Special Meeting of the Committee of the National Society for the Education of the Poor in the principles of the Established Church, took place on Wednesday the 5th instant, his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, President of the Society, in the Chair. Present: his Grace the Archbishop of York; the Lords Bishops of London, Bangor, Gloucester and Bristol, Salisbury, and Chichester ; Lords Kenyon, Sandon, Courtenay, and other Members.
The Secretary directed the attention of the Committee to communications he had received from various quarters of the kingdom, and from several Heads of the
Upon the subject of general education, Dr. Johnson has expressed sentiments so opposed to the views in fashion in the present day, and, at the same time, so entirely coincident with those entertained by Bishop Jebb, that to quote the passage from his favourite author will be doing his views the best justice. [This passage is given at length in p. 94, of this journal, beginning at “The truth is, &c. Ed.]
+ The Bishop had recently visited the Infant school, established by Joseph Wilson, Esq. of Clapham, in Quaker-street, Spitalfields. He was equally struck with the principle of these institutions, and with its application, and observable effects. The Infant school system continued to the last the only modern invention in education which met his full approval.
Church, urging the Society, at this important crisis, to provide a special fund for extending and improving elementary education in the Manufacturing and Mining districts. The following Resolutions were unanimously agreed upon :That at the present crisis it is the especial duty of the Members of the Church,
Laity as well as Clergy, to make extraordinary efforts for raising the children of the poor, in the more populous of the Manufacturing and Mining districts, from the alarming state of ignorance and demoralisation disclosed to
public view by recent inquiries and events. That the success which has attended the endeavours of the National Society,
under the most unfavourable circumstances, and with very limited means, to found and support Schools in the most neglected of those districts, afford
the strongest encouragement to increased exertion for this specific object. That immediate measures be taken to collect a special Fund, the whole of
which shall be expended in grants towards building School-rooms, and, in certain cases, increasing or guaranteeing the salaries of teachers, for limited periods in the Manufacturing and Mining districts. That the Address prepared by the Secretary, Mr. Sinclair, and bearing the sig.
nature of his Grace the President, be adopted and circulated. That the Finance Committee, consisting of the following Members, the Lords
Bishops of London, Durham, Chester, Bangor, Ripon, and Hereford; Lord Ashley, M.P.; Viscount Sandon, M.P.; Lord Redesdale ; Rev. J. Sinclair (Treasurer); William Cotton, Esq.; William Davis, Esq.; G. F. Mathison, Esq.; and Richard Twining, Esq., be requested to undertake the Collection and Administration of the Fund.
The Committee of the National Society earnestly request the attention of the Church, laity as well as clergy, at the present crisis, to the important question-how the poor in the manufacturing districts may be raised from the alarming state of ignorance and demoralisation disclosed to public view within the last twelve months, and may receive the blessing of a sound religious education ?
The education clauses of the Factory Bill having been withdrawn, no general plan of mixed education appears likely to be soon attempted; and the Church is for the present called upon, with a moderately increased aniount of aid from the State, to carry on the work from the contributions of her own members. It now remains to be seen whether the Church is able and willing to complete the great work she has so long and so strenuously laboured to accomplish, -of providing, from the resources of private benevolence, sound religious instruction and moral training for the children of the poor. Various circumstances afford encouragement to the discharge of this important duty. There is abundant evidence that education under the superintendence of the Church will be gladly received,-may be cheaply afforded, -and, with the Divine blessing, will effectually secure its object, by instilling Christian principles, the great sources of peace and order and social happiness, into the minds of our manufacturing population.
1. That parents among the working classes should be found willing, as they unquestionably are, to accept instruction for their children at the hands of the Church, cannot excite surprise. Parents who, from casual circumstances, have withdraud from the communion of the Church, though they assent in general to its doctrines parents who attend alternately their parish church and some place of separate worship more conveniently situated,-as well as parents who are indifferent about religion,-could hardly tail of being glad to place their children under wholesome discipline and instruction. They naturally regard the superintendence of the clergyman and his personal teaching in the school as a security for its good management; not only as an encouragement to the scholars, but a pledge for the good conduct of the master. They see their children from day to day become more orderly and obedient ; more cleanly, useful, and industrious; and, in all respects, better members of the domestic circle. The experience of the National Society justifies the expectations which on these and other general grounds might have been formed. Throughout the manufacturing districts parents of every denomination readily send their children to National Schools. The factory-inspector for the West Riding of Yorkshire, after
stating that the number of factory-children in his district amounts to 10,000, thus proceeds :—“The success which has attended the exertions of the National Society in behalf of factory children is very encouraging. Nearly every factory-child in the districts assigned to the Society's Schools at Leeds and Bradford now attends them. The last official returns give about one hundred and eighty in attendance at Leeds, and nearly three hundred at Bradford. No objection to the mode in which these schools are conducted has been made since they have been in full operation, either by a parent of a child." The same statement is continually repeated both by clergymen and schoolmasters. At the Society's model factory-school at Bradford, which was opened since the publication of the Report above alluded to, and built for the accommodation of 200 children, the attendance, including both the morning and afternoon, has for some time past amounted to 400, of whom a large proportion belong to different sects. Similar returns could be quoted from nearly all the populous districts of the north.
2. It is an additional encouragement to exertion, that while the poor are willing to accept the blessing offered to their children, and through their children to themselves, it may be afforded at a moderate expense. Neither the original cost of building, nor the subsequent charge for maintenance, present such serious difficulties as might at first be apprehended. The original outlay for the erection of the schoolbuildings is seldom more than 40s. a scholar. Returns from 33 places in the manufacturing districts shew that school accommodation for 13,750 children cost £26,433, or at the rate of £I 183. 6d. each. Of this sum, the Privy Council has occasionally contributed in poor places to the extent of 20s.; and as it is generally understood that the parliamentary vote at their disposal will this year be increased, they are not likely to reduce their bounty. The grants of the National Society have been in most cases at a lower rate. The Committee, for the reason stated in their last Report, viz., that the worst cases are generally the last to present themselves, earnestly desire to raise their contributions to 10s., or in extreme cases to 158. When an educational movement begins throughout a country, local efforts are first made in places where zeal and wealth are abundant; next in places less favourably circumstanced; and last of all in places where great poverty prevails, where popular education is dreaded or disregarded, or where peculiar difficulties exist, such as that of procuring a site, or of acting with unanimity or cordiality in favour of any one system. The Committee, therefore, were, more frequently than in any previous year, under the painful necessity of allowing plans for the instruction of the people, after having made some progress, to be abandoned. It is a melancholy fact, that for some months the new applications did little more than compensate for the cases in which grants previously quoted had heen relinquished. Happily, the number of important townships wholly unprovided with school accommodation is not so great as to present an insuperable obstacle to the efforts of the benevolent. New schools in 80 or 100 populous places would probably supply a large proportion of the deficiency. Should the liberality of the members of the Church in all parts of the country be commensurate with the magnitude of the object in view, it may be hoped that the amount thus collected will be sufficient, in addition to local efforts, and grants from the Committee of Council, to provide, in a great degree, for those wants which the Government and Legislature so deeply lament, but, owing to present difficulties and conflicting interests, are unable to supply.
Nor does the amount of extraneous aid necessary for the annual support of schools, is fairly estimated, offer serious discouragement. Weekly payments from the children, church collections, and annual subscriptions, go very far, especially in the case of large schools, to raise the funds indispensably required. It is in the case of small schools in outlying townships, where there is no resident clergyman, that the chief impediments occur. It is an important fact connected with the point now under consideration, that when nearly 2,000 applications were made for a share of Betton's Charity (a fund intended to be distributed among schools in annual grants not exceeding £20 each for a single school, and £40 for a double school), a large proportion of the applicants expressed their confident hope, that with assistance to that extent they might be able to maintain their schools in an efficient state. The Society, therefore, if sufficient funds could be obtained, would gladly tote grants for limited periods, especially to schools on their first establishment, till the advantages of education begin to be ascertained from experience, and are appreciated in the district; a pledge in each case being required from the school. managers, that a sum, to be agreed upon, shall be raised by local efforts, and that the school shall be open to diocesan inspection. In many instances, grants of this kind would encourage the clergy to make their Sunday-school rooms, of which large numbers are to be found in every quarter of the manufacturing districts, more useful and available, by opening them for week-day instruction. The Society has already carried into operation this most effective and economical measure in sixteen cases of great urgency; and may refer for a full account of the successful result to its own Report for this year, as well as to the Reports of the factory inspectors.
A further encouragement to the good work so urgently required at the present crisis is, that the education given in Church schools will, under the Divine blessing, effectually secure its object. Our national schools may not be in every instance what they ought to be, nor what we hope to make them ; and yet even in their present state they have been to a large extent the means of instilling Christian principles,—the great sources of peace and order, of social happiness and of hope for eternity,-into the minds and hearts of our manufacturing population. Of this important fact, proofs the most gratifying and incontestable have recently been afforded. During the late disturbances, the question how far the influence of the Church and of Church schools was beneficially exerted in support of law and order, and in what degree the check which the spirit of anarchy received, and its ultimate suppression, were owing to the early dissemination of religious and moral principles among the working classes, may be considered as set at rest by the evidence which the Society has laid before the public. From the statements of about 150 correspondents, lay as well as clerical, within the disturbed districts, it appeared that in every case the effect of education, whether in Sunday or daily schools, was salutary in proportion to its completeness. Wherever means of Church instruction were best provided, there the efforts of the disaffected were least successful. In whatever districts Church principles predominated no outbreak took place, however grievous the privations of the people, except in cases where the rightly disposed inhabitants were overpowered by agitators from a distance.
The experience of thirty years has produced in this Committee a deliberate and growing conviction, that the effect of educating the children of the poor has already been in a high degree beneficial, and is likely to be still more so. We do not refer merely to the acknowledged fact, that the preservation of our political institutions depends, under God, upon the stability of our Church establishment; and that the poison of anti-social and anarchical corruption is sure to spread most rapidly and most fearfully where the people are abandoned to their own devices, and left to wander as sheep having no shepherd. But what we especially advert to, is an important truth, too frequently overlooked, and yet universally granted by the most competent authorities, that to build churches and establish ministers is not enough, unless Church schools be added. Hence it is, that so many of the parochial clergy are such liberal contributers towards building and maintaining schools; for, to their power, we bear record, yea, and even beyond their power, they are willing of themselves to sacrifice their private means for the advancement of this great object. In some cases it has been found necessary to remonstrate with curates and district ministers on the imprudence of incurring liabilities that might involve themselves and their families in serious embarrassment, or, perhaps, even expose them to utter ruin. The an. swer always has been, that without a school every effort to reclaim the people was unavailing
If the lay members of the Church would only profit by the experience of parochial and district-ministers living in daily intercourse with the people, and thoroughly ac. quainted with their sentiments and habits, they would see how absolutely necessary it is, not only to the well-being and good order, but to the safety of the country, that the education of the poor upon sound principles should be maintained and extended. But, let it be repeated, the time is short. If the Church delays much longer this duty to the young; if her influential, and wealthier, and more responsible members much longer hesitate to provide sound instruction for the people, the enemies of religion and good order will avail themselves of the tempting opportunity, with increased probabilities of success.
When these disastrous consequences of neglect have come upon us, we may repent; we may be ready to repurchase with millions the precious opportunity we wantonly suffered to escape us an opportunity which even common sense and prudence, independently of higher considerations, would have disposed us to secure, and which a few thousands timely and wisely spent would have enabled us to improve. NATIONAL Society's OFFICE,
W. CANTUAR, President. Sanctuary, Westminster.
JOHN SINCLAIR, Treasurer. PROPOSED DISTRIBUTION OF THE SPECIAL FUND. A CERTAIN amount of the Special Fund for the Establishment of Schools in the Manufacturing and Mining Districts having been collected, the Committee of the National Society invite the attention of the Clergy and other persons in those districts, promoters of education upon the principles of the Church of England, to the subjoined outline of the chief objects to which they propose to apply the distribution; and they invite applications for assistance under any of the following heads. Printed forms adapted to the circumstances of the case will be forwarded in reply :
1. In cases where School accommodation is wholly wanting or inadequate, the Committee will, if necessary, vote larger grants than they have hitherto been able to afford, in aid of building, enlarging, or purchasing School-rooms.
2. In cases where the School accommodation, although adequate in amount, is in an unsatisfactory condition, the Committee will contribute towards fitting up and repairing School-rooms, or adding Class-rooms or School residences, when they have satisfactory assurance that the School will afterwards be maintained in an efficient state.
3. In cases where School-rooms are only used on Sundays, the Committee will be ready to make grants, for a limited period, towards the expense of opening them upon week days, and providing salaries for competent teachers.
4. In extreme cases, the Committee will contribute towards maintaining Schools for a limited period, as well as towards building, fitting up, or enlarging School-rooms, provided it shall appear that the difficulties are temporary, and that the School is likely to be afterwards efficiently supported by local efforts. THE ARCHDEACON OF LEWES, UPON THE SPECIAL FUND FOR THE PROMOTION
OF SCHOOLS IN THE MANUFACTURING DISTRICTS. [We are by no means certain that we have any right to publish the following letter, without the sanction of the venerable author, though it has been sent to us in print. Anxious, however, as we are to promote the good work by every means within our reach, we trust we shall be erring on the right side by giving this earnest and forcible appeal as wide a circulation as we can.—Ed.] REVEREND AND DEAR Sir,-When I spoke in my Charge last week concerning the abandonment of the Legislative Measure for the Education of the Children in our Factories, I was not aware that a resolution had been formed by several of the leading persons in the Church and State, to call upon the members of the Church to supply the requisite funds, by their voluntary contributions, for that education which the Legislature had been deterred from enjvining by law, through the violent opposition of the Dissenters. On Saturday last, I received a copy of the accompanying Address; and I felt heartily thankful that such a prospect is immediately opened before us for effecting this great object of our wishes. Although I cannot but deem it one of the first duties of a State to provide means for the education of all those classes of its members that have no means of providing education for themselves,--so that a State which neglects this duty, forfeits one of its highest privileges, as well as those blessings with which God ever visits the faithful discharge of duty, whether by individuals or by nations, -and although I much fear that unless the education of all children be made obligatory on their parents and guardians by some imperative enactment, numbers will still be condemned to constant, hearthardening labour, through the reckless cupidity of our manufacturers,—still it cannot be doubted that free-will offerings are ever the most acceptable in the sight of God, so that we may confidently hope He will prosper our efforts ;