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him as he advanced in life ; for under the head of “My Lord's Robes and Apparell,” which were purchased during this visit to town, there is an abundant supply of the most rich and costly articles. It should be recollected, however, that his robes as an earl, and which were, it seems, of crimson velvet and ermine, form part of the catalogue ; but, independent of these, there is a long list of velvets and satins, tawny, black, and russet, together with velvet dress-shoes, French caps, a sword whose “chape" was silver gilt, &c. &c.
Somewhat anomalously placed under this head, are also to be found the complete equipment of a lover of the bow, as a bugle-horn tipped with silver, a green sash, a pair of shooting gloves, and several dozens of arrows with differently formed heads ; and shortly afterwards we find his lordship purchasing a falcon for one pound, and obtaining a hound from my lord of Westmoreland ; articles which sufficiently prove how much attached this nobleman was to rural diversions ; for these were the only treasures, excepting dress, which he thought worthy of being carried from London into the north. He did not, however, absolutely forget his countess, whom he had left at Skipton, though, as Whitaker has observed, “ she might complain with some reason, that he had been sufficiently profuse in the decoration of his own person, and very economical with respect to hers;" for there are but two articles of dress put down for her ladyship, “a white fronte. lett broidered and wrought with gold for my lady, 21. 10s." and “ Velvet to my lady, 78.” Lady Margaret, however, appears to have had a taste for something very independent of mere personal ornament, a penchant, I suspect, for some peculiar kind of wine ; for the only other article which relates to her runs thus, for bying wyne to my ladie, 1l.
A considerable charge, of course, is incurred for fees due to the heralds, in consequence of his lordship's accession of title ; and it appears also by an item for boat-hire to Durham-place, that the earl was ordered to wait upon the duke of Richmond, natural son of Henry the Eighth, who was warden of the western marches, and to whom the earl had been appointed as deputy.
It is much to be wished, that whilst his lordship was feasting on venison, and listening to the minstrelsy of Derby-place, for we read that 3s. 4d. were paid “to a servant of the abbot of Waltham that brought a buk to my lord,” and the samé sum “ to my lord Derbies minstrells," he had permitted the catalogue of his “ Almonses and Offerands” to have been more extensive, as the articles under these heads amount but to 11s. ld.!
There are two items which more peculiarly relate to the earl's family arrangements. The first informs us, that he had to pay half-yearly to lady Clifford *, widow of his father, Henry lord Clifford, the shepherd, the sum of seventy-five pounds by way of jointure ; the second, that, during his visit to town, he obtained of the pope's collector, for the sum of 11l. 138. 4d., a licence for marriage between John Scrope, son and heir-apparent to the lord Scrope, and his own daughter, lady Katherine Clifford.
Finally, we learn from this household book of the Cliffords, that, deducting the jointure paid to his stepmother, the earl expended on this expedition the sum of 3011. 198., no trifling amount for those days.
The honours which he received from the friendship of Henry the Eighth did not terminate with this promotion to an earldom ; for, about seven years afterwards, he was made a knight of the most
* Now married to lord Richard Gray.
noble order of the Garter, and in 1537, through the interest of his sovereign, he married his eldest son, Henry Clifford, to the lady Ellenor Brandon, daughter of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, by Mary, queen dowager of France, daughter of Henry the Seventh. For the accommodation of this highborn lady, whom it was thought necessary to receive with all the honours due to her royal descent, the earl, then resident at Skipton, completed, in the short period of four or five months previous to her nuptials, a very considerable addition to the castle, occupying on its eastern side a space of not less than one hundred and fifty feet, and including, in a single range of building, a long gallery, then deemed a requisite ornament to every princely residence, and terminated by an octagon tower. When the “ main part of the castle” was slighted by ordinance of parliament, in December, 1649, in consequence of its having been a garrison on both sides during the great rebellion, this addition by the first earl of Cumberland, being evidently calculated more for domestic splendour than defence, was left untouched, and is now, with the exception of the upper windows, which were altered by the countess of Pembroke, nearly in its original state, exhibiting not only its carved and panelled wainscot in good preservation, but a part of its ancient furniture.
It was, however, but the year preceding this appendage of state apartments, that the earl was compelled to defend the strongest parts of his castle against the efforts of a formidable insurrection which had broken out in the northern counties, in consequence of the king's dissolution of the smaller monasteries. It was excited and headed by Robert Aske, a man of great courage and considerable military skill, and who dignified his undertaking by the captivating appellation of The Pilgrimage of Grace. He was powerfully seconded by the zeal of the Roman catholics, and more particularly by the monks, friars, and nuns, who being expelled from their houses, and turned loose, as it were, upon the world, appealed with such effect to the superstitious feelings and compassion of the lower orders, that in a very little time not less than forty thousand individuals had assembled in support of the cause. They bound their adherents by a solemn oath, and, after publishing a specious declaration of their views, they advanced with arms in their hands, and with banners, on which were depicted the five wounds of Christ, whilst their priests, marching in