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down. Some items have been kept by the author in the form of queries for many years waiting for solution, and those solutions have been ultimately found in most unexpected places.

I have been an author for sixty years, have written many books, and of course have been a very miscellaneous reader. In my long experience I have remarked how little the range of 'literary' reading has varied, and how doubt still centres on matters which were cruces in my early years. So that a work of this kind is of as much usefulness in 1891 as it would have been in 1830. I always read with a slip of paper and a pencil at my side, to jot down whatever I think may be useful to me, and these jottings I keep sorted in different lockers. This has been a life-habit with me, and the compiling of them into a subjective volume consists chiefly in selecting, sorting, explaining, correcting, and bringing down to date. What I myself have wanted to know, I presume others younger than I am may wish to know also; and what I have found difficult to discover, I presume others with fewer books may find difficult also. I know that many a time and oft I should have been most thankful if I could have laid my hand on a book, and found, without much tedious research, the explanation of some item in this book at the time unknown to me; and I judge others by myself. This very unromantic way of looking at a big book has been the secret of my success as an author. It was begun at the age of eighteen, and my first book of note was the 'Guide to Science,' the sale of which has been almost fabulous. The 'Dictionary of Phrase and Fable' was more than twenty years in hand, and has had a very wide circulation; the present book cannot fail to be equally useful, and I hope will not be less acceptable to the general.

In these 'Historic Notes I have had the advantage of two press. readers of unusual learning, judgment, and wide reading-one in London and one in Philadelphia. With a diligence and discrimination beyond all praise, they have called attention to. every doubtful statement, date, or

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proper name, and much of the accuracy of the book is undoubtedly due to their painstaking co-operation. For myself I am under unbounded obligation to them, and hope they will accept my thanks thus publicly acknowledged and without stint.

Little more need be said. The arrangement is somewhat different to that usually followed in Historical Dictionaries. The items are not set under the ruling word, but generally under the first noun or adjective of the phrase. Thus under Massacre 'will be found all articles of that category, massed together, and not distributed under the name of the place where the deed of blood was committed. This has been done to bring the subject together in a compact form. Similarly with Church Councils, Literary Forgeries, and so on. When this allocation has been found impracticable, as in 'Irish Associations,' Monastic Orders,' 'Sunday Fête Days,' and so on, then under the general heading will be found an alphabetical list of all the articles in the book on the subject, which may be turned to if required.

Some antiquated customs have been pointed out, and a suggestion has been occasionally made which may possibly direct attention to what appears to the author of these 'Notes' a national want or national defect. See p. 697, article POETS' CORNER, and p. 115, article BORROMEO.

In one instance, that of 'Abigail,' in which a word has an ancient and modern history, the recent revival of the word in the reign of Queen Anne has been thought more consistent with the scope of this book than the well-known tale in the life of David. Those, however, who prefer the older story may, if they think proper, consult the 'Dictionary of Phrase and Fable.'

Finally the book here offered to the public is not a 'Book of Dates,' though dates have been added whenever required. Inventions and Discoveries, the great staple of a book of dates, find no place here; and hundreds of the articles here inserted are wholly independent of dates.

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PREFACE

Similarly, the book is not an Historic Dictionary,' but a dictionary of historic terms and phrases, jottings of odds and ends of history, which historians leave in the cold or only incidentally mention in the course of their narratives. If I might borrow the motto of 'Notes and Queries,' 'When found make a note of,' it would most aptly describe the end and object of these 'Historic Notes.'

THE AUTHOR.

If I might make the suggestion without being impertinent, I think the book would be admirably adapted to the upper forms of Ladies' Schools, and to those in private life who seek to extend their general knowledge, after having laid aside their elementary books. Of course, these Historic Notes are mainly designed and were specially written for the general public, and this, their educational use, is a mere afterthought.

HISTORIC NOTE-BOOK

A

A Etre marqué à l'A, of first-class quality. A is the distinctive mark of money minted in Paris, which is purer and more free from alloy than any other money in the French dominions. For A1 see Dict. of Phrase and Fable, p. 1. Aarau (Peace of), 8, 9, 11 Aug., 1712. This treaty concluded the war of Toggenburg.

Aaron's Breastplate, 4 rows.

1. Reuben, sirdius; Simeon, topaz Levi, carbuncle. 2 Judah, wald; Dan, jacinth; Naphtali, agate, 8. Gad, amethyst; Asher, beryl; Issachar, sapphire. 4. Zebulon, diamond; Joseph, onyx; Benjamin,

jaspar.

Abbasides (3 syl.). Califs of Bagdad, so called from Abul Abbas (Abdallah ben Mohammed), who defeated Mervan II., and became calif, 18 Feb., A.D. 750; ceased 1258, by the overthrow of Mostasem, put to death by Hulakou or Hulagu, a Mogul prince. The Abbasides succeeded the Ommaïades.

The Abbaside califs were, Aboul Abbas (750); Abou Giafar Almanzor (754); Mohammed Mahdi (775); Hadi (785); Haroun al Raschid (786); Amyn (800); Al Mamoun (813), and 80 more.

Abbate (2 syl.). A young Italian clergyman who has received the tonsure, but has not taken full orders.

Abbates Milites, or Abba-comités. 10th cent. Lay abbots, who deputed deans or priors to the spiritual oversight of their abbeys.

Pronounce Ab'-a-teez Mil'-i-tees.

Abbaye de Monte à Regret. The guillotine. What is now the Rue des

ABBOTT

Bourses, in Paris, was formerly the Monte à Regret, the place for public executions. Pronounce Ab-bay-d' Mōnt ah Ra-gra'.

Abbés Commendataires. The 225 abbots appointed by the king of France. The office was a perfect sinecure, but the abbé commendataire drew onethird of the revenues of his convent. Many of these abbots were laymen, but generally they were literary men, often noblemen's sons included under laymen. Pronounce Ab-bay Com-men-da-tares.

Abbey. In Scotland, a sanctuary for debtors against legal process afforded by the abbey of Holyrood.

Abbots in commendam. Abbots commended to hold an abbey and its dignity in charge till a regular abbot has been appointed. In the Reformation several abbots and other ecclesiastics were allowed to enjoy their livings for life, or for a time. By 6, 7 Will. IV. c. 77, s. 18, no ecclesiastical dignity, office, or benefice, after the living possessors, was allowed to be held in commendam.

Abbeys and other Catholic livings held in com mendam were mere sinecures for life.

Abbotsford Club (The). A literary club founded in Edinburgh (1835) for the publication of works belonging to Scotch history, literature, and antiquities. Above 80 quarto volumes were published. The club no longer exists.

Abbott Scholarships. I. In the University of Cambridge: two for classics and mathematics, for undergraduates in

B

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their first year. Value about 60%. a year, tenable for three years; founded by John Abbott of Halifax, Yorkshire, 1871.

II. In the University of Oxford: three for the sons of poor clergymen; founded the same year by the same founder.

Abdicated Monarchs. The following monarchs of Europe have abdicated:

Amadeus I. (duke of Aosta) Spain
Charles IV. of Spain dorced)
Charles V, of Spain and Germany
Charles X. of France forced)
Charles Albert of Sardinia (forced)
Charles Einmanuel of Sardinia...

Christina of Sweden.

Diocletian and Maximian...

Felipe V. of Spain

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Francis II. of the Two Sicilies (forced)

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Napoleon I. of France (forced)
Napoleon III. of France (forced)..
Otho of Greece (forced)
Pedro II. of Brazil (forced),
Poniatowski of Poland (forced)
Richard II. of England (forced)
Stanislaus Leszczinski forced)
Victor Amadeus of Sardinia
Victor Emmanuel

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1878

1808

1556 1830

1819 1802 1654 805, 398

1724

1860

1680

1810

1818 1848 1154

1887

1814
1870

1863
1880
1735
1399

1785 1730 1819 Several dethroned without even the mocking show of abdication, like Edward II. of England 1327); Henry VI. of England (1471); &c.

Abeceda'rians. Anabaptists who set their faces against all human learning, lest it should impede the progress of the soul in its apprehension of Divine truth. The Catholics at one time opposed all learning except what they called sacred literature, such as the lives of the saints, and other religious books.

Abel'ians or Abelo'nians. A sect of the ancient Christian Church which married, but lived in continence, as they assumed Abel did (4th cent.).

Abenzerraghes. A wealthy and powerful family of Spanish Moors, descended from Yusef ben-Zerragh. The word divided is A-ben-Zerragh[es], and is pronounced Ah'-ven-zerark'-ey. Their struggles with the family of Zegris, and destruction in the palace of the Alhambra, in Granada (fifteenth century), have furnished the subject of a charming Spanish romance, The History of the Civil Wars of Granada.' Chateaubriand made it the subject of his Adventures of the Last Abenzerraghe,' and it furnishes the text of one of Cherubini's operas. The feud began 1474.

Often written Abencerragos.

ABIGAIL

Ab'erdeen' (University of), 1500; founded by James IV. It was originally founded in 1494, by W. Elphinstone, bishop of Aberdeen, and called King's College. In 1858 Marischal College (q.v.) was united to the University of Aberdeen. (21, 22 Vict. c. 83).

Aberdeen man's privilege (An). To alter or change one's mind on second thoughts.

These good folks, Alan, make no allowance for what your good father calls the Aberdeen man 8 privilege, of taking his word again, or what the wise call 'second thoughts.'-Sir W. SCOTT, Redgauntlet, Letter 7.

Ab'garus, king of Edessa (A.d. 18– 50). Is said by Eusebius to have written a letter to Christ asking Him to cure his disease, pronounced by his physicians to be incurable. Christ replied, after His ascension, that one of His disciples should be sent to effect the cure. Thaddeus was the apostle selected, and Abgarus was restored to perfect health. Of course this is only tradition. (Euseb. i. 13.)

Abhorrers. A political party in England, in the winter 1679-1680. They looked with 'abhorrence' on Lord Shaftesbury's proposal to set aside not only James, who was a Roman Catholic, but also his daughter Mary, who was a Protestant, married to the Prince of Orange. See 'Petitioners,' &c.

Macaulay says, they were a church and state party which declared their abhorrence of those who sought to dictate to the king (Charles II.) as to the routine of the new parliament in 1680.

Ab'igail (An). A woman of low degree and intriguing character, so called from Abigail Hill, a niece of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, introduced into the court of Queen Anne as a bedchamber woman. Abigail took the fancy of the queen, became prime favourite, and ousted the duchess from her high position in 1707. Harley was Abigail's uncle, as the duchess was her aunt, and Abigail had been privately married to Mr. Masham, groom of the bedchamber of George, prince of Denmark, the queen's consort. (See 1 Sam. xxv. 3).

Her (the Duchess of Marlborough) indignant mind instantly attributed this omission to the contrary advice of the queen's Abigail, and... she broke loose on Anne without regard to the presence of the public.-HowITT, Hist. of Eng. (Anne, 261.

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