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Church of Ireland, and so it is obviously. The members of that Church are strongly attached to British connection, her ministers are a branch of the Church of England; thus, by the ties of interest and religion, a strict-let us hope an indissoluble-union is maintained between the two countries. Can any one overrate the importance of a link by which the enlightened and educated people of both islands are inseparably identified? Once undo this link, and the rallying point is gone, the scattered component parts are rendered powerless by being dissevered, and can only be recombined after a shock, which has rent and torn them in the disruption, and perhaps rendered it impossible for them ever again to be so firm and strong. We would conjure her Majesty's Government not to tamper with the Church of Ireland, or to falter with her enemies. We implore of them not to attempt to impair her efficiency, or weaken her resources; if they do, we tell them that they not only irremediably lose the support of their best and their most steady adherents, but far worse, they lessen the power of Engand and Ireland to overthrow the worst enemies of that country, and they check the diffusion of the word of God.
We ourselves do not entertain any apprehension that the Government can have such an idea, but it is whispered that a Church commission is to follow that now appointed to enquire into the relation between the Irish landlord and tenant; and the enemies of the Church hope that the conciliation policy will be extended to the injury of the Establishment. Menaced, no doubt she is, by repealers in Ireland, and by their sympathizers in England; let not, therefore, any blow be inflicted by a hand which has been trusted and esteemed. Five little years of peace the Irish Church has been suffered to enjoy; her energies have been revived, and her power of doing good enlarged, let them not be cramped and paralyzed by concession to her enemies, or by a wavering defence on the part of her friends. We have used these observations, founded on what we conceive to be the duty of the English people and Government. We are, however, fully impressed with the knowledge that all means are but subordinate to that higher Power, by whom the Church will never be deserted, and in whose care are her destinies; but though she is upheld by a stronger arm than man's, our abandonment of her would be a gross dereliction of our public and private duty, and utterly unjustifiable.
We have shown, that if the people of England wish to retain the union between the two countries, the Church must be maintained inviolate. Into the inevitable horrors of a separation we have not entered, though it would require no prophetic eye to see them; but let us ask, is there no higher motive than that of secular interest to govern us? Should England, who has spent millions of her treasure, and yearly loses hundreds of valuable lives to free men from earthly bondage-whose missionaries traverse thousands of miles to spread the glorious tidings of the Gospel-overlook, or rather abandon, the rich harvest that lies at her doors. We think no sincere member of the Church could do so. Is it nothing to keep alive the beacon fire, whose hallowed light shall yet be shed upon this benighted land-is it nothing to preserve a religion which teaches men to "do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with their God?" In this instance, as in all others, it is abun
dantly clear that our Christian and national duties are one and the same. We remember, on one occasion, accompanying a clerical friend to a coast-guard station in Ireland, where he went to perform divine service. The boat-house was the place of worship; in the long-boat sat some of the crew, whilst the officer and his family, with a few of the neighbouring Protestants, who were but thinly scattered through the parish, and at a great distance from the church, were seated on a bench. The scene was novel, picturesque, and impressive. It was a beautiful summer's day, and the rays of the sun danced brightly on the glassy surface of the sea, whose subdued murmur harmonized with the solemn tones of the preacher. Before us, placid as a sleeping child, was stretched "creation's mighty common," unspeakably declaring the infinite power of the Almighty, whilst within the narrow shed in which we sat, and which a single wave might engulph, we heard the ambassador of Him who bid the waves be still, preaching words of comfort and of truth to his attentive hearers. At the time, probably, the novelty of the scene made the strongest impression; but often since have we thought with joy and gratitude on the fact, that in the remotest corners of Ireland the word of God is preached, and that even in forlorn places, such as the one we have described, and where there were but a handful of us, the spirit of Protestantism is kept alive, and no member of our Church suffered to perish for lack of knowledge. And we ask, who, for the sake of a few paltry pounds, would diminish the number of ministers, and perhaps leave none in parishes in which the Protestants are but few? Who shall estimate the importance of a single soul? No; it is false reasoning to make the principle of numbers the sole test for the establishment or dis-establishment of a Church. But we dwell not on this question now-it was, we trust, finally set at rest, when attempted to be acted on by the Whig Government.
But it has been said, "it is a matter of indifference to us what Church is established, provided we are not obliged to pay for it."
Independently of the indifference to the highest interests of their fellow creatures, exhibited by the utterers of such a remark, and the mercenary nature of the individual who would grudge a contribution for the decent support of men engaged in teaching the word of God, we may remove some misapprehension, which may possibly exist with regard to the source from whence the revenues of the Church of Ireland are derived. Tithes, in an agricultural country, such as Ireland, are a burden upon land-they are, and have ever been so in fact, (although it might be hard to convince the farmer, who saw the tithe proctor take off every tenth sheaf, that he did not pay the clergyman); now nine-tenths of the land of Ireland are the property of not merely Protestants, but, we believe, of members of the Established Church; if so, it follows, necessarily, that nine-tenths of the revenues of the Church are contributed by her members; and, allowing for the diversity of opinion inseparably incident to the nature of free and of thinking men, where will there be found the charge of a religious establishment to press more entirely on those who avail themselves of its benefits, and less on those who choose to exclude themselves from it? So much for the hardship of the Irish people supporting a Church to which they do not belong. In fine, internally the prospects of the Irish
Church are cheering and consolatory. We have an united body of pious and active men co-operating with zeal, tempered with discretion, in their Master's service, whilst many external obstacles have been smoothed down or removed. We find the English language generally spoken throughout Ireland, and it will soon be universally used, and the Bible extensively circulated. The country has been rendered accessible; good roads now exist where formerly there were only wild mountain passes ; the savage habits of the people are materially lessened (since the coast guard service has been established, wrecking has entirely disappeared), they have become temperate-a change which, though not effected by the reasoning or the means we could have wished, will, we expect, when its good effects are felt by the intemperate, be lasting; faction fights have become rare― -the memory of the cruelties of the rebellion are becoming fainter; the duties which devolve on the holders of property are more observed than in former days-education is more general, and must spread universally; and if this pernicious agitation which checks the investment of capital, and excites one class against another, were stopped, employment would be given more freely to the labouring classes, making them more independent and more likely to think for themselves. As we have before stated, if ever there was a time when the Church of Ireland should be maintained in its integrity, it is the present; and we conjure her friends, steadily, unitedly, to resist the attacks of demagogues and seditious repealers, backed as they are by their sympathizers and the enemics of the Establishment in this country. It becomes our imperative duty to be awake and stirring in her defence, to let no display or appearance of weakness stimulate the efforts of men whom no kindness can conciliate-no forbearance melt.
Our cause is a glorious one; in it are involved the honour of England, the preservation of the union between the two countries, the maintenance of truth against error, and the eternal welfare of hundreds of thousands now in existence, and it may be of millions yet unborn.
The Moderation of the Church of England. By Timothy Puller, D.D. A new Edition, thoroughly revised; the References being verified and corrected; and the passages cited, printed at length. With an Introductory Preface. By the Rev. Robert Eden, M.A., F.S.A. London: Pigott, Kennington-lane, Lambeth; Hamilton. Oxford: Parker. Cambridge: Deighton. 1843.
THIS truly valuable work was first published in 1679, but it is as scasonable as if the learned author were living and writing in 1843— that is, one hundred and sixty-four years after the original date of its publication. The author's description is well and briefly indicated in the following sentences from the preface to the Book of Common Prayer:-"It hath been the wisdom of the Church of England, ever since the first compiling her publick Liturgy, to keep the mean betwixt
the two extremes..... .In which review we have endeavoured to observe the like moderation." The same spirit which animated the original author animates the introductory preface of his industrious editor, who has rendered the work tenfold more valuable by his laborious verification of references, and by printing at length the passages cited. The following enumeration of the subjects of the eighteen chapters of which this work consists will enable our readers to form an opinion of its various and important contents:-Chap. 1. Of moderation in general; 2. Of the false notions of moderation which many have taken up; 3. Of moderation with respect to the Church of England; 4. Of the moderation of our Church in respect to her rule of faith; 5. Of the moderation of the Church in applying the rule of faith to itself; 6. The moderation of the Church in its judgment of doctrines; 7. Of the moderation of our Church in what relates to the worship of God; 8. Of the moderation of our Church in relation to ceremonies; 9. Of the moderation of our Church with respect to holydays, namely, both the feasts and fasts of the Church; 10. Of the moderation of the Church in reference to the holy sacraments; 11. Of the moderation of the Church in reference to other rites and usages; 12. Of the moderation of our Church in what concerns the power of the Church; 13. Of the moderation of the Church and kingdom, referring to the administration of public laws towards offenders; 14. Of the general moderation of our Church towards all that differ from her, and are in error; 15. Of the moderation of the Church towards other churches and professions of men; 16. Of the moderation of the Church of England in her reformation; 17. Of the moderation of our Church in avoiding all undue compliances with Popery, and other sorts of fanaticisms among us; 18. Of the moderation of our Church as it may influence Christian practice, and especially our union.
To illustrate the temperate spirit of the Church of England, as developed in the chapters, of which the preceding is a summary, and at the same time to show, that in maintaining it she compromised nought of essential truth, is the aim of Dr. Puller's truly valuable work, which Mr. Eden has reproduced in its present improved form. "The reader of it (he truly remarks) will be surprised and delighted at the discoveries which it makes to him of the wisdom of our Church. Her services, her articles and homilies, he has often admired for their sublime sentiments and solid truths; but he will now regard the Church of England as an inheritance doubly dear to him, because it has been shown to be a structure of divinely-inspired prudence and admirable skill. He will learn to bless God with a fervour hitherto unknown, for having made his feet to rest upon such a sure ground; and, though he may not have the pain of reflecting that he has ever, with the open enemies of our national Church, "thought scorn of that pleasant land” in which God has cast his earthly lot, he will lament that he has lived so long insensible to the advantages of his situation." (Pref. pp. xx., xxi.) When all is excellent, it is difficult to specify any portions as being pre-eminently good. We may, however, state that we have been struck with the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, fourteenth, and fifteenth chapters, as being peculiarly appropriate to the present time.
Clergymen will, of course, speedily procure a copy of this work for themselves; and laymen, who can command the requisite time, cannot peruse it without deriving much profit from it. To candidates for holy orders it will prove a mine of important information, on topics, concerning which the times require that they should be well informed. Dr. Puller's Moderation of the Church of England" demands, and we sincerely hope that it will receive, an extensive circulation.
Brief Notes on the Church of Scotland, from 1555 to 1842. Summary of her Ecclesiastical Government and Discipline, bearing upon the Present Controversy. By E. C. Harington, Incumbent of St. David's, Exeter. London: Rivingtons. One vol. 8vo. In the small space of little more than a hundred pages, Mr. Harington has contrived to present his readers with a very complete outline history of the Episcopal and Presbyterian Churches of Scotland. To the public generally, and to those particularly who have not time to wade through Parker Lawson, nor patience to wait for Stephens, this work will, no doubt, be most acceptable. The history of two Churches, and the narrative of an important controversy, detailed explicitly and comprehensively within such narrow bounds, are matters deserving commendation, when executed, as we find them here, faithfully and impartially. The story of the suffering Episcopalians, and that of their established antagonists, have been rendered familiar to our readers in the pages of The Churchman; we will, therefore, direct their notice to the author's remarks touching upon the schism that has lately rent the vail of the Presbyterian temple, and which, to our no great pleasure, threatens to end in the discomfort of the seceders-a party whose claims almost amount to a demand for liberty for theinselves, and toleration for none beside. A candidate for ordination in the Presbyterian Church has to pass through the several gradations of student, licentiate, and presentee. Philosophy and divinity are the subjects to which his attention is directed while a student; and if the synod of the Presbytery find him proficient in these, and skilful also in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, he is "taken on trials," and should he pass with credit through a subsequent mere searching and practical examination, he is licensed to preach the Gospel, without ordination, and without power to administer the sacraments; it is only when he receives a presentation to a church, that, after further "trials,” he is ordained.
Now we shall very speedily see what very little, or rather what total absence of right is on the side of congregations who claim the power of rejecting the presentee of a patron. The right of the latter to present is never disputed, and the presentee is never ordained till the government of the Church has tried and examined him, and pronounced him duly qualified. The patron only presents-the Church collates; and not alone does the patron merely present, but he has only the power of presenting a man who, being a licentiate, has been already declared by the synod, to which the members of