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prayers begin, during which the rest of the clergy by two's and three's
Of that I say nothing: I am sure
drop in, until the sermon begins.
nothing could have been said of mine.

Each clergyman's name is called
over; he, if present, bows; if not, some neighbour or churchwarden
whispers an apology. That roll called over, then comes the Charge,
which those who have good memories commit to them; those who
have not, trust to read and mark when printed. Then comes the
magnum opus (aye, indeed, opus to many a curate to pay for), the
dinner! Once, when I was a curate, it cost me, with bait of my
horse, 17. 2s. 6d. for a two o'clock dinner, and all over by four and
home to tea. After dinner the presence of gentlemen churchwardens
prevents any discussion of clerical matters, and the bishop, who must
be fatigued, is glad to retire.

Now have I, in this description, aught set down in malice? Perhaps I have been forestalling; but it serves to show, that after a man is in orders he knows as little of his diocesan, or his diocesan of him, as each did before.

To return after the six months are elapsed which the bishops now require, an irrevocable ordination takes place without so much as an attempt at a trial of the tyro's powers to read audibly, or preach intelligibly. Have not men, with an actual impediment, been admitted? After a man is ordained deacon, he cannot be unordained; he may be suspended pro gravi culpa, but without ulla culpa, except in the prelate who ordained him, he may be quite unable to read the sublime prayers of our liturgy so as to fulfil their intention, or to preach the truths of the Gospel so as to keep his hearers awake.

Very early in life was I impressed with this necessity of good reading, by hearing a lady of very high rank ask a gentleman what he thought of her rector's manner of performing the Church service. "Madam (he said), I have often heard it well read; but, till to-day, I never heard it prayed." Now it is no fault, culpa, in a clergyman who cannot pray the prayers, but it is a grievous error in those who ordain, not to know whether the candidate can read them well anywhere, or even so as to be heard in the church to which he is to be licensed. Query-Does the ordaining bishop, or his chaplain, even know the dimensions or state of that Church?

I have now in my eye one of the very best men in the Church, who has read half his congregation out of Church, and yet who is so beloved in his parish that it would be high treason to move him from his sphere of Christian usefulness, and yet patriotism to replace him in the desk and pulpit by one who could be heard. Somehow, these things were better managed when a preacher to whom

"Musa loqui

Musa didit ore sonora

was wont to be sent from the religious houses to address the congre.. gation on Sundays and holidays, as well as hold holy communion with the resident of the cancellum.

I have no hesitation in saying, that of these lets and hindrances to drawing a congregation to the prayers, and teaching them from the pulpit, the bishop of each diocese is ignorant.

I read lately, in Fox's "Book of Martyrs," that at a synod, in 747, it was decreed, "That all bishops should once a year go about all the parishes in their dioceses." Why should they not in 1843, and in future? For thus would they learn, by the evidence of their own senses, what is said and done in each church. I suspect, that had the decree of this synod been now in force, the Formalists of these late years would not have jumped about theirs-standing here, kneeling there, bowing everywhere, muttering prayers and murmuring the sermon; nor have stuck up imitation-golden really-wooden candlesticks, with candles, and plates with an image of a lamb, Prothesis tables for the elements, fauld-stools to enable them to turn their backs on the people during the litany, embroidered surplices, sham copes, albs, &c.

But here, again, my spirit of forestalling has run away with me. What I wish to impress on my venerable brethren-for very few are of the age of my fathers-is the necessity of an apprenticeship, a pupilage, a clerkship (I will not argue about a name) in our profession, as there is in that of law and of physic. If three or seven years be required before a man can administer to the wants of my body or estate, shall the soul be entrusted to a tyro to make his experiments upon? A very learned and late bishop was so far convinced, as to advise a young friend of mine "never to venture on preaching a sermon of his own during his diaconate." I am quite aware that this will be met by a party, who will plead the CALL which every candidate owns. The call (I speak as a man)-the call does not alter a man's physical powers, nor teach him at once, per saltum, to attain the clocution at twenty-three which ought to be taught at two or three, and thence by degrees. Extraordinary operations of the Holy Ghost have ceased, and man must occupy with his talent, or wrap it in a napkin.

What I therefore wish to urge, is a previous trial of each candidate in respect of his reading and preaching, before ordination; or such a location after, which will allow of a removal without any the slightest slur on his character. Nay, further, what possible objection could there be to a requisition in future, that every candidate for orders should, for three years after taking his degree of A.B., reside with and serve under some resident rector, vicar, &c., there learning the duties of a parish priest, and assisting him as he may direct, just as is done by lawyers with a special pleader, or, as it may be, by medical students, each in his surgical or general calling; always allowing him to keep his terms for his degree of M.A.? Even after that preparation, the diocesan should have a power of removing him from a rural to an urban cure, from a larger to a smaller sphere, or vice versa, as his powers increased or diminished, or as the good of the Church required. THAT is the alpha and omega of the matter. The good of the Church, and yet that which is most omitted in ours, where the individual man, and not the general Church, is, by the private patronage, too much brought forward.

I must again revert to the powers of the Act of 1st and 2d Victoria,

c. 106, which the laity are beginning to act upon in cases of mere reading and preaching.

As in the army and navy, the good of the service, and not of the officer appointed to the command, is the object of a patriotic HorseGuards or Board of Admiralty; so should be our Church appointments. And here, with all due respect, I must say a word to lay patrons; exhorting them to give effect to all that the diocesans may propose of removals or exchanges; for such, in the present state of things, is the only creditable method of making the Church as effective as it ought to be, and as they, the lay patrons, even must wish to see it. For instance, H has a small church, while his voice would fill St. Paul's; has a congregation of very rustics, while he is fit for Athens; has an extensive, damp, cold, rural parish, while his weak frame, with a rheumatic habit, is a hindrance to what he nevertheless works with fear and trembling. Let him be not only allowed, but assisted in exchanging, to where his voice will be as that of an angel, his style be understood and appreciated, both in his pulpit and in those domiciliary visits which he will be as able as willing to pay. All this is not foreign to my observations on the more intimate acquaintance which must be cultivated between our diocesans and ourselves, if we would prevent the laity from verifying the line of the poets

"Thus fools rush in, where angels fear to tread."

The silent growth of the " Formalist party" (for such is, I repeat, a better name than Tractarian, or Puseyite, or Oxford) would have been impossible, had diocesans visited their clergy every year in their parish, instead of the clergy visiting them triennially in an inn. Would it be asking too much of their lordships to request their driving to two churches each Sunday, and unexpectedly attending divine service; and during the week, to call personally on the incumbent and make his acquaintance in his parish, in his home, and see him out of canonicals. By a little arrangement, a great deal might be done every year, if not all. But do it, my lords, yourselves. Archdeacons, rural deans, chaplains, are very good men; but he was a wise man, though a heathen, who wrote

"Segnius irritant, animos demessa per acnes
Quam quæ sunt oculis subjecta fidelibus."

I can speak still, after forty years' experience, of a sort of longing after intimacy with the diocesan. You, my lords, were once what we are still, parochial clergy, till the voice of the Prime Minister of the day called you to put on the mitre-a painful pre-eminence to many of you. You would benefit by such free intercourse, by such intimate acquaintance with your brethren, who, if inferior in rank, are not such (nor do you deem them such), in talent, who have opportunities denied to you by your exalted lot (where your eye is at too obtuse an angle to sec what they see), and be by it enabled, personally, to ascertain the real feelings of those members of the Church who compose the strength of it the pence and farthings of our general balance. The parochial clergy cannot afford time or money to travel to their bishop, but they

would be glad to receive their shepherd and friend in their humbler dwelling. Nay, I venture to predict, that the real consequence to the Church of the diocesan would increase by these parochial visits, where the sheep would occasionally hear his voice, and treat him as the Ephesians did St. Paul, sorrowing, if they also thought that they should see his face

no more.

Something of this sort must be done, or these new churches, whose sight gave rise to these thoughts, will be new evils occupied by clergy, each going his own way, and not the way of the Church. An increasing body of clergy calls for increasing investigation, selection, and communion, or (quod Deus avertat) we shall have a schism in our body—a second Wesley, or a second Whitfield, will again divide the house of God, and you will have a small majority of true Episcopalians. Till the present time, the standard of clerical education suited; but now, when peasant boys are actually in our national schools made theological students, and our farmers and little tradesmen's sons invited to as good a cheap education as used to be had in the royal public schools, the times demand a higher and a more particular training for the soldiers of Christ's Church militant here on earth. You, who are the officers, must insist on this, and then frequently review your subalterns, seeing how they, in their turn, drill their privates. Mix with all, my lords, as his Grace of Buckingham does with agriculturists, and learn, as he has, by free intercourse with the ranks below. Remember the head is always moved by the tail. The old serpent knew and knows this— not only knows, but acts upon this knowledge. He is moving everything, and the clergy are either not moving at all, or moving in different, if not opposing directions. I fear the latter is the prevailing sign of the times; the zeal of the younger clergy is eating them up-their congregations do not, like silly sheep, who are not fed, look up and starve; but they are destroyed by the unwholesome nature of the unsuitable food which is profusely thrown before them; or they compare their food, and find how different it is in difierent parishes.

Therefore, in furtherance of this more accurate investigation, and more intimate acquaintance, we must beg for something like the discipline of the Horse Guards, or of the Board of Admiralty-something like a definition of those duties which may be by sec. 77, cap. 106, 1st and 2nd of Victoria, inadequately performed. The clergy at present may have unity of principle, but they have diversity of practice. Bring forty London parishioners, with their hymn and psalm books, into the forty-first church, and not one will be able to sing what is there given out! The clergy may have similarity of object, but they have great dissimilarity of operation. Take forty men out of the first forty rural parishes, and cause them to attend divine service in a forty-first, and each will find something that he is not used to at home.

Excellent as our liturgy is (and woe be to the hand that would add or diminish aught!), our rubric is very silly. The word curate is used constantly in a sense that it does not now bear; so is the word clerk and clerks. Scund as our Articles are, our canons are ridiculous; and yet I know an instance within this last year, when rubric and canons, with regard to sponsors in baptism, were so used by a young formalist

curate, as to drive parents to the Wesleyans for the ordinance, or be content with registration. The rubric, aye, and the calendar, want revision. The canons want a sponge; and when the slate is clean, give the Church some intelligible rules of sound discipline. These things once effected, a rational discipline established, ministers established in cures suited to their individual qualification, and a friendly intercourse kept up between the chief shepherd and his deputed shepherds, then will the flock revere and love both in proportion as they see and hear more of them, till the will of God shall be done on earth by all, as it is in heaven. I am, my lords, with great respect, your faithful and obedient servant, A SEXAGENARIAN.


No observations of ours, in support of the Protestant Church of Ireland, will be needed by those who are acquainted with the principles on which that Church is founded; by those who are impressed with a sense of the responsibility which nations, as well as individuals, lie under to disseminate the truths of the Christian religion, and who feel that their profession of Christianity would be cold and unpractical, and their bounden duty neglected, were they to abandon a Church planted by the Almighty amidst many foes, and hitherto wonderfully upheld by his gracious providence.

Unhappily, however, there are others who have not studied those principles, and who feel no such responsibility; therefore, on another occasion we may discuss what we may call the elementary part of the question-at present we will not enlarge upon the propriety or nonpropriety of a Protestant State supporting a Protestant Church. We assume it to be the duty-and we will prove it to be the interest-of the English Government and the English people to maintain in its integrity a Church, which, by divine Providence and the efforts of our ancestors, has been long established, has endured through many trials, storms, and dangers, and which, though menaced by open foes from without-some of whom have perfidiously sworn, if not to support, at least not to subvert-and by hollow friends from within her hallowed precincts, will, with the blessing of God, continue to the end of time.

Our design, in this paper, is to examine the prospects and position of the Irish Church; but for this purpose it will be necessary to take a brief retrospect. A very little reflection will show the almost insuperable difficulties which the Irish clergy have had to contend against, even within the last half century. They came in contact with men, imbued not only with all the evil and carnal propensities of sinful human nature, but also predisposed against them; men, brutalized by ignorance and debased by superstition; men, into whose minds had been inculcated an intense hatred of England, who, in many districts, -the whole, or nearly so, of the south and west-spoke a different language, were removed from the same sphere of society, the same habits of thought-whose minds were mercurial, whose ancestors delighted in tumult, themselves in Whiteboyism, or the less dangerous lawlessness

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